National Institute for Urban School Improvement
--- Browse
--- search
--- my collection
--- contribute
--- help

NICI Virtual Library
Journals and More!
Library Close Window


part of the Education Reform Networks

You are in: Subject —>

Elementary Secondary Education

  • Classroom Multiculturalism: A Closer Look
    Uses field data gathered in two school districts to explore multicultural activity in social studies classrooms. The focus is on the source, treatment, and incorporation of multiculturalism into the lessons.
  • Increasing Preservice Teachers' Diversity Beliefs and Commitment
    Explored the attitudes, beliefs, and commitments to diversity of a predominantly Anglo-American population of preservice teachers enrolled in a diversity course. Results described beginning ethnorelative attitudes, beliefs, and commitments after participation in the diversity course; some theoretical underpinnings for understanding change (or lack of change); and a framework for facilitating positive multicultural experiences.
  • Teaching Asian American Students
    Uses data from interviews with parents of Asian American students, observations, and literature reviews to identify cultural and language issues that must be considered in teaching this population. The paper discusses the history of Asian immigrants, attitudes toward education among Asians, the relationship between teaching styles and Asian culture, and suggestions for teachers working with Asian American students.
  • Looking Back: Teachers' Reflections on an Innovative Teacher Preparation Program
    Discusses an evaluation of the Comprehensive Teacher Institute, an innovative, multicultural, urban teacher preparation program. Reflections by teachers who completed the program indicated that one of the most important contributions to their professional development was fostering a network of colleagues and university faculty who continued to provide support and guidance.
  • Effects of Language Arts Activities on Preservice Teachers' Opinions about Multiculturalism
    Examined the effects of reading children's literature about diversity and participating in related interactive activities on student teachers' opinions about multiculturalism. Intervention and control-group students heard lectures on multiculturalism.
  • Service-Learning in Teacher Education: Enhancing the Growth of New Teachers, Their Students, and Communities
    This book provides teacher educators, administrators, practicing teachers who work with preservice teachers, policymakers, and researchers with information on the conceptual, research, and application areas of service-learning in preservice teacher education.
  • Becoming a teacher in a professional development school
    Interviewed graduates from two Professional Development Schools to determine the impact of that experience on subsequent teaching practices. Graduates reported that student teaching had the greatest impact because of the extended time and depth of experience in the classroom, the quality of mentoring they received, the connections they drew between theory and practice, and the emphasis on collaboration and reflection.
  • Mentorships: Transferable Transactions among Teachers
    As dispensers of information, mentors can support teachers through career stages from recruitment to retirement. This article explores mentorships as transferable transactions.
  • Guidelines for Global and International Studies Education: Challenges, Cultures, and Connections
    Argues that the high public interest in contemporary international issues has opened a window of opportunity for effecting change in the national global-studies curriculum. Develops guidelines that summarize what concerned scholars and educators recommend as the international dimension of education for K-12 students.
  • Bilingual Education Policy and Practice in the Andes: Ideological Paradox and Intercultural Possibility
    Discusses bilingual education policy and reform in the context of indigenous languages of Peru, Ecuador, and Bolivia, exploring the ideological paradox inherent in transforming a standardizing education into a diversifying one and in constructing a multilingual, multicultural national identity. Data come from policy documents and practitioner narratives.
  • Multicultural Education and Curriculum Transformation
    Describes five dimensions of multicultural education, focusing on the knowledge construction process in order to show how the cultural assumptions, frames of reference, and perspectives of mainstream scholars and researchers influence the ways in which academic knowledge is constructed to legitimize institutionalized inequity. (Author/SLD).
  • Multiculturalism vs. Globalism
    Addresses the error of treating multiculturalism and globalism as the same concept. Considers the boundaries and shared purposes of multiculturalism and globalism.
  • Preservice Teachers Integrate Understandings of Diversity Into Literacy Instruction: An Adaptation of the ABC's Model
    Investigated preservice teachers' understandings of their own and their students' cultural backgrounds, examining how they integrated those understandings into literacy instruction. The ABC model (autobiographies, biographies of students, cross-cultural analysis, analysis of cultural differences, and classroom practices) helped stimulate students to continue examining their lives, their cultural/linguistic backgrounds, and the impact of those factors on teaching diverse students.
  • Multicultural Education: A Developmental Process. Spotlight: Montessori--Multilingual, Multicultural
    Maintains that multicultural education is a key element in the ongoing struggle to solve current educational problems. Presents Banks's (1988) phases in the evolution of multicultural education.
  • A Call for Change in Multicultural Training at Graduate Schools of Education: Educating To End Oppression and for Social Justice
    Graduate-level multicultural training is important for preparing future teachers to work effectively with diverse students. Professionals experienced in multiculturalism must revise and refine multicultural training to better address immigrants' diversity issues and issues around sexuality, disability, and spirituality.
  • Cross-Cultural Field Placements: Student Teachers Learning from Schools and Communities
    Presents two cultural immersion projects where student teaching and community involvement interact synergistically. Also discusses learning outcomes of the projects, examines the importance of service learning, and explains how traditional student teaching assignments can incorporate many of the design principles that characterize cultural learning and preparation for diversity.
  • Report on the Binational Conference: In Search of a Border Pedagogy (4th, El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, January 1999).
    This report contains a synopsis of the binational conference and features brief summaries of all the papers presented at the conference.The following questions helped to shape the scope and content of the conference: What is the current condition of bilingualism, particularly in the United States? .
  • Teachers of Gifted Students: Suggested Multicultural Characteristics and Competencies
    This article discusses desired characteristics and competencies in teachers of gifted students who are culturally, ethnically, or linguistically diverse. These include: culturally relevant pedagogy, equity pedagogy, a holistic teaching philosophy, a communal philosophy, respect for students' primary language, culturally congruent instructional practices, culturally sensitive assessment, student-family-teacher relationships, and teacher diversity.
  • Institutional Support for Diversity in Preservice Teacher Education
    Examines how institutions can provide support for diversity in preservice teacher education, focusing on the institutional context in which teacher educators work as they craft multicultural teacher preparation programs. Support includes strong institutional leadership and a campuswide vision for change, recruitment and retention of diverse students and faculty, and curriculum transformation.
  • Reclaiming the Borderlands: Chicana/o Identity, Difference, and Critical Pedagogy
    Argues that "Borderlands" discourse has served, and continues to serve, as a theoretical framework to advance educational theory by accounting for multiple subjectivity and difference. Provides historical background of Chicana/o Studies and its contribution to Borderlands theories.
  • Issues in Mathematics Education with African American Students
    To teach mathematics successfully to African Americans, there must be modification of what math is as a knowledge. Recently, a framework was composed which delineated four disparate dimensions of math as a type of knowledge and how assessment varies as a result of the definitions.
  • Waging Peace in Our Schools
    The Resolving Conflicts Creatively Program (RCCP) described in this book asserts that schools must educate the child's heart as well as the mind. RCCP began in 1985 as a joint initiative of Educators for Social Responsibility Metropolitan Area and the New York City Board of Education.
  • Creating a Multicultural School Climate for Deaf Children and Their Families
    Offers guidelines to help educators of children with deafness build a multicultural learning environment for students and their families. Strategies are provided for developing cultural competence and tips are given for creating inclusive curricula and instructional approaches, choosing culturally diverse materials, and recruiting diverse staff.
  • Reflections on the "White Movement" in Multicultural Education
    Responds to an essay that examined the role of whites in multicultural education and reviewed three books, critiquing five of the essay's assumptions (e.g., there is a white movement in multicultural education, attention to whites' role in multicultural education is very recent, and the focus on white identity development in multicultural education signals a shift away from equity pedagogy). (SM).
  • Library Facilities and Books for Palestinian Arab Children
    Presents an overview of libraries and related services for Palestinian Arab Children in the Haifa and Galilee regions of Israel and on the West Bank based on interviews with librarians and educators between 1993 and 1996. Covers funding, organization, collection development, censorship, staffing, and programming.
  • Human Services and the Full Service School: The Need for Collaboration
    A full service school is one that meets the most basic needs of children and their families. This book discusses how these needs can be met within the school setting in order to produce the key desired outcomes of increased learning and easier teaching.
  • Coming Together: Preparing for Rural Special Education in the 21st Century. Conference Proceedings of the American Council on Rural Special Education (18th, Charleston, South Carolina, March 25-28, 1998)
    This proceedings contains 64 papers on rural special education. Papers present promising practices in rural special education, discussions of theory and research, research findings, program descriptions, and topics of current concern.
  • Multicultural Citizenship
    Great Britain's citizenship education helps prepare students for informed and responsible citizenship in a multicultural society. Social science teachers and researchers should consider factors that epitomize multiethnic Britain today as they teach.
  • Bayanihan: Providing Effective Counseling Strategies with Children of Filipino Ancestry
    Provides a psychocultural profile for persons of Filipino ancestry so as to increase awareness, understanding, and sensitivity for the mental health needs of these youth, from primary school to college. Discusses the implications of these cultural factors and presents suggestions for counseling this diverse population.
  • The Journal for the Professional Counselor, 1998
    An official refereed branch journal of the American Counseling Association, this journal covers current professional issues, theory, research, and innovative practices or programs in all branches of counseling.
  • The Comprehensive Support Model for Culturally Diverse Exceptional Learners: Intervention in an Age of Change
    This article discusses how students, teachers, families, communities, and government can work together using the Comprehensive Support Model (CSM) as an intervention for culturally diverse learners with exceptionalities. Embedded in the discussion are cases that illustrate functions of CSM.
  • Black Students in Teacher Education
    Examines black student's experiences in initial teacher education, and reveals what still needs to be done before these students can receive the same positive treatment as their white colleagues. The author presents research revealing the various forms of racism, discrimination, and stereotyping that create these negative educational experiences and suggests what teacher education can do to prevent replicating them.
  • Waking the Sleeping Giant: Engaging and Capitalizing on the Sociocultural Strengths of the Latino Community
    A family literacy program for Salvadoran refugees and other Latinos in Arlington (Virginia) is analyzed from a sociocultural perspective as exemplifying an educational project designed and implemented by grassroots organizations in an increasingly diverse, multicultural/multilingual community. The program addresses the educational needs of poor illiterate families while drawing on parents' culture and extensive life experiences.
  • Multiple Literacies and Critical Pedagogy in a Multicultural Society
    Multiple literacies are needed to meet the challenges of today's new technologies and multicultural society. Media literacy is necessary because media culture strongly influences people's world view.
  • First Things First: Selecting Repertoire
    Presents three principles of repertoire selection: (1) select music of good quality; (2) select music that is teachable; and (3) select music that is appropriate to the context. Discusses how repertoire selection relates to the National Standards for Music Education.
  • Bilingual Education for All: A Benefits Model for Small Towns
    Suggests a curriculum for rural and small-town schools that combines bilingual education in local languages (indigenous, heritage, or immigrant languages) with global, multicultural education. Discusses benefits to students and community, and ways that the model overcomes typical rural constraints of inflexible school organization; administrative and public resistance; and lack of bilingual teachers, materials, and funding.
  • Beyond Enhancement: The Kennedy Center's Commitment to Education
    Asserts that exposure to high-quality arts performances with accompanying educational experiences enlivens teaching and learning. Maintains that few schools have taken advantage of opportunities provided by arts-presenting institutions.
  • Presence of Mind: Education and the Politics of Deception: A Dialogue with Pepi Leistyna
    Pepi Leistyna's book "Presence of Mind" discusses how schools of education deter teachers from understanding the world's complex political, historical, social, and economic realities. Educators must develop what C.
  • Assessing the Attitudes of Student Teachers toward Issues of Diversity: A Dilemma for Teacher Educators
    Explores attitudes and perceptions of 120 student teachers with regard to their ability to implement multicultural education in the student teaching classroom. Results suggest that confusion and ambiguity are present throughout the student teacher education experience.
  • Promoting Bilingualism in the Era of Unz: Making Sense of the Gap between Research, Policy, and Practice in Teacher Education
    Examined efforts to promote bilingualism in a course for prospective teachers, Education of Bilingual Children: Theory and Practice, focusing on how student teachers grappled with the complex relationship between research, policy, and practice within bilingual education. Analysis of five types of literacy events indicated that students experienced a process of transformation in developing more positive attitudes toward bilingualism.
  • Effective Teacher Training for Multicultural Teaching
    Effective teachers must be able to competently address issues related to student diversity. However, many teachers are not prepared for multicultural teaching.
  • Multicultural Education and the Standards Movement: A Report from the Field
    The current obsession with standardizing curricula and measuring output may further reduce teacher agency and marginalize segments of our society that are already cheated by the system. Enormous discrepancies exist among public-school facilities, resources, and teachers.
  • Small-Town College to Big-City School: Preparing Urban Teachers from Liberal Arts Colleges
    Describes a model program to prepare teachers from midwestern liberal arts colleges for urban teaching careers. Student teachers come to Chicago and live together, student teaching in local urban schools and completing regular professional development and cultural diversity activities.
  • Tomorrow's schools of education: A report of the Holmes Group
    This report contains nine chapters: "A New Beginning"; "The Heart of the Matter: Three Kinds of Development"; "Special Knowledge for Educators"; "Participating in Policy Development"; "Commitment to Diversity"; "Human Resources: Making People Matter"; "The Core of Learning: What All Educators Must Know"; "The Professional Development School: Integral to Tomorrow's School of Education"; and "New Commitments and New Kinds of Accountability for the TSE." To correct the problem of uneven quality in the education and screening of educators for U.S. schools, the report proposes an altered mission for schools of education.
  • Cultural Diversity and the NCATE Standards: A Case Study
    Examines the ethnic distribution between college of education faculty and public school teachers. Describes one comprehensive program designed to help reduce this type of ethnic discrepancy.
  • Researching Mathematics Education and Language in Multilingual South Africa
    Explores policy, practice, and research issues related to teaching and learning mathematics in multilingual classrooms in South Africa. Focuses on code-switching in multilingual mathematics classrooms.
  • Immigration, Ethnic Cultures, and Achievement: Working with Communities, Parents, and Teachers
    Addresses immigrant advocates who work both inside and outside of schools, calling on them to use comprehensive language; foster U.S. loyalty and citizenship; be proud of individual ethnicity; seek leaders among immigrants themselves; promote parents' roles; and guide the children of immigrants to consider teaching as a career in order to become mediators among cultures and leaders and role models for future generations.
  • An Outsider's View Inside: 21st Century Directions for Multicultural Education
    Draws on the work of James A. Banks and adds the perspective of a cultural outsider to consider the future of the discipline of multicultural education, considering politics, technology, educational context, cultural capital, and the nature of culture.
  • Decentering Whiteness: In Search of a Revolutionary Multiculturalism
    The present focus on diversity in multicultural education is often misguided because the struggle for ethnic diversity makes progressive political sense only if it can be accompanied by a sustained analysis of the cultural logics of white supremacy. A real revolutionary multiculturalism must consider the construction of subjectivities within relations of power and privilege linked to capitalism.
  • Multicultural Education. Responding to a Mandate for Equitable Educational Outcomes
    Recent statistics suggest that equal educational opportunities for many students (e.g., students who are poor, disabled, or minorities) remain elusive. To handle the growing student diversity, educators must infuse multicultural education, instruction, evaluation, and support services into the school setting.
  • New Approaches to Multiculturalism Reviewed
    Provides capsule reviews of a number of publications related to multicultural education and minority students in the United Kingdom. Focuses on five treatments of multicultural education and antiracist education and comments briefly on 14 other books related to issues of minority education.
  • Embracing Diversity
    Illustrates integration of multiculturalism into science curriculum and instruction and outlines the principles that should be reflected in multicultural science classrooms. Offers strategies for science teachers in developing science programs, shaping classroom climate, and using learning styles.
  • African Studies in Canada: Problems and Challenges
    Examines the marginalization of African studies in the Canadian public school system and how educators might promote these studies to allow blacks to have a greater knowledge of themselves and increase their self-worth. Various challenges facing curriculum reform and future directions for African studies in Canada are discussed.
  • The Culturally Diverse Classroom: A Guide for ESL and Mainstream Teachers
    This handbook is for teachers and administrators involved with international students in English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and mainstream settings. It is intended to raise awareness of the new American classroom.
  • Editorial: Multicultural Education--Solution or Problem for American Schools?
    Discusses the role of multicultural education in American education, examining Geneva Gay's book on culturally responsive teaching (which argues for culturally responsive teaching, with teaching having the moral courage to help make education more multiculturally responsive) and Sandra Stotsky's book (which argues that multicultural education is a problem for American schools and is anti-white, anti-capitalistic, and anti-intellectual). (SM).
  • Staying the Course in Times of Change: Preparing Teachers for Language Minority Education
    Describes how passage of Proposition 227, California's initiative restricting bilingual education, has influenced teacher preparation to authorize specialized instruction for limited English proficient students. The response to Proposition 227 by San Diego State University's College of Education is explored to illustrate the reaffirmation of a commitment to educational equity and ongoing program development to support multicultural teaching.
  • The Other Canadian "Mosaic": "Race" Equity Education in Ontario and British Columbia
    Examines the implementation of Canadian federal policy on multicultural and antiracist education in Ontario and British Columbia. Focuses on the perspectives of 42 "active players" in the field of race equity education, including teachers, faculty, administrators, and activists.
  • Language Barriers and Teaching Music
    Maintains that every public school student deserves an opportunity to study a musical instrument. Asserts that a limited command of English should not prevent a student from being accepted into instrumental music class or hinder that student's progress.
  • Integrating the Arts: Renaissance and Reformation in Arts Education
    Asserts that the general educational curriculum tends to be fragmented and compartmentalized and that this situation would be improved by curriculum integration. Argues that an interdisciplinary arts approach would require new teacher attitudes and instructional strategies.
  • Editorial. Immigration and Urban Education in the New Millennium: The Diversity and the Challenges
    Introduces a special issue that explores new immigration trends and major issues related to K-12 schooling in urban areas. The seven articles fall into three categories: a national and historical overview; examples of two types of educational change; and the acculturation and schooling experiences of various racial/ethnic immigrant groups.
  • Action Research and Practical Inquiry: Multicultural Content Integration in Gifted Education: Lessons from the Field
    An informal survey of 71 teachers of the gifted participating in an in-service course on gifted education suggested that many teachers had goals and experiences related to multicultural curricula for gifted children. Through the survey, teachers also identified obstacles they encountered in implementing multicultural activities and benefits they perceived.
  • Suburban Bigotry: A Descent into Racism & Struggle for Redemption
    One New Jersey school district responded to racism and educational bias by implementing prejudice reduction initiatives. The community had been all white until the mid-1990s, when it became one-third minority.
  • Our Nation on the Fault Line: Hispanic American Education.
    This report responds to an Executive Order that charges the President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans with improving the education of Hispanic Americans through the study of current educational conditions. The study includes an analysis of the current state of Hispanic American educational attainment and points out the serious work that must be done to promote high quality education for Hispanics.
  • Already Reading Texts and Contexts: Multicultural Literature in a Predominantly White Rural Community
    Examines how the inclusion of multicultural texts played out in one predominantly white rural community, focusing on repercussions of a key event that set off conflict in the community and describing how various interpretations of this event haped teachers' and community members' beliefs about the selection, interpretation, and teaching of multicultural literature. (SM).
  • Incorporating Popular Literature into the Curriculum for Diverse Learners
    Discusses how teachers can use magazines written for culturally and linguistically diverse groups to increase their own knowledge base and to use as a resource for multicultural-education lesson planning in order to provide students with an opportunity to learn about high achieving individuals who come from backgrounds similar to their own. (Author/CR).
  • Mask-making and the Art in Multicultural Art Education
    Profiles the use of mask-making in an art education program at San Pedro Academy in Los Angeles. San Pedro is an all-male private school for elementary, middle and high school students with emotional and behavioral problems.
  • Wanted: Minority Educators for U.S. Schools
    Although necessary for a diversified student body, minority teachers are underrepresented due to a lingering resistance to integration efforts, unappealing classroom conditions, salary issues, and culturally biased professional exams. Equitable placement procedures, incentives, competitive salaries, mentoring programs, subject-area recruitment, and multicultural training are partial remedies.
  • Asian Americans: From Racial Category to Multiple Identities. Critical Perspectives on Asian Pacific Americans Series
    The experience of Asian Americans as a racial category and as a multiplicity of identities in the United States is examined. Demographically, Asian Americans are the fastest growing racial and ethnic group in the United States.
  • Reflections on Multicultural Curriculum. Building Community through Global Problem Solving
    Describes the importance of teaching students empathy for and understanding of cultural differences, explaining how to build community through shared responsibility in global problem solving. Three examples of this type of curricular exercise, which focus on nutrition, economic structures, and ecology, are presented.
  • Reimagining Race in Education: A New Paradigm from Psychology
    Discusses paradigms underlying current approaches to multicultural education, introducing a typology of philosophical assumptions that has been used to classify approaches to multiculturalism in the field of psychology; discussing racial identity theory as an important psychological component of a race-based perspective for understanding race and culture in education; and examining how racial identity affects educational thought and practice. (SM).
  • Multicultural Aspects in the Education of Children and Youth with Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities: Introduction to the Special Issue
    This introductory article discusses cultural considerations in the design and delivery of services to families whose children have a moderate to severe disability. It calls attention to the lack of consideration of culturally and linguistically diverse families in the current research and summarizes the following articles.
  • Multicultural Teacher Education for the 21st Century
    Discusses multicultural preservice teacher education, recommending that preservice programs be more deliberate about preparing white Americans for teaching diverse students because of the increasing division between white teachers and minority students. The paper examines preservice teachers' fear of diversity and resistance to dealing with race and racism, proposing a two-part program for preparing teachers to work with diverse students.
  • Futures Thinking: Consideration of the Impact of Educational Change on Black and Minority Ethnic Achievement
    Discusses the potential of information and communications technology (ICT) and the World Wide Web to offer positive alternatives in contemporary British schools that are failing their black and minority group students. Describes the advantages of ICT and looks at future changes in the teaching profession and changes in the curriculum that will require knowledge of ICT.
  • Finding a Voice for the Victimized
    Examines writers' growing awareness of the voices if the victims, exploring the representation of characters who resist subjugating colonial powers and tracing how various past and present authors have represented colonized peoples. By refocusing postmodern readers' consciousness on the violation of rights, authors reeducate and sensitize them to the contrasting voices that speak out against the persecution of those who are different.
  • Science Teaching, Culture and Religious Values
    Examines approaches to science teaching in a multiethnic context as well as contradictions to present models. Seeks to define the parameters of an antiracist approach to science teaching and provides ideas and a list of useful resources for classroom teachers.
  • Perceptions of Chicano/Latino Students Who Have Dropped Out of School
    Reports on qualitative study of focus group interviews with Chicano/Latinos who had dropped out of school. Responses revealed themes of alienation and discrimination in the school setting.
  • CCCC's Role in the Struggle for Language Rights
    Recounts the activist history of the Conference on College Composition and Communication in working toward a more democratic valuing of language diversity by both teachers and the public. Focuses on two organizational policies of CCCC, the "Students' Right" resolution of 1974 and the "National Language Policy" of 1988, incorporating articles and commentaries on language from this journal.
  • South Dakota's Resource List for Children, Youth, and Families.Pierre
    This directory lists contact information for educational programs and human resource service in South Dakota.
  • Learning Me Your...Science Language
    Demonstrates how science instruction can only be effective when teachers are aware of differences in children's language and their culture. The author argues that it is important to recognize when linguistic or cultural understandings lead children to wrong answers that to them seem totally logical.
  • Culturally Responsive Performance-based Assessment: Conceptual and Psychometric Considerations
    Provides a rationale for advocating the development of culturally responsive performance-based assessments as a means of achieving equity for students of color. Notes arguments for and against these assessments and explores psychometric concerns.
  • Leaving Authority at the Door: Equal-Status Community-Based Experiences and the Preparation of Teachers for Diverse Classrooms
    Describes a cross-cultural, equal status internship designed to prepare teachers for diverse classrooms, examining its influence on prospective teachers' emerging sociocultural perspectives and raced identities and exploring successes and challenges of this experience and what has been learned about supporting more mature anti-racist identities in the 3 years that students have been engaged in this internship.(SM).
  • Making the Most of the Classroom Mosaic: A Constructivist Perspective
    Teachers today are required to be sensitive to a wider range of multicultural differences than ever before. Explores whether they can combine teaching content into a single package for all children, or whether they must continuously repackage the content for each of the diverse groups they teach.
  • Glues, Brews, and Goos: Recipes and Formulas for Almost Any Classroom Project
    This book emphasizes children's learning and is filled with recipes and formulas. The goal of this book is to connect students to the past, provide links to nature, show the importance of science in everyday life, and help students see themselves as part of a global community.
  • Working Together To Prevent Violence
    By cooperating with other district staff, law enforcement, fire and rescue personnel, and social services, educators can prevail over school violence. First steps are developing a well-trained team, an effective crisis-response plan, and an alternative site to accommodate students.
  • From Section 11 to Ethnic Minority Achievement--Reports from around the Country
    Participants in the Association of LEA (Local Education Agency) Advisory Officers in Multicultural Education in the United Kingdom present their views about the difficulties in moving from the previous funding provision for ethnic minority students, (Section 11), to the Ethnic Minority Achievement Grant funding provisions. (SLD).
  • Dramatized Experience, Civil Discourse, Sensitive Issues
    Describes the author's experience when the director and teacher-trainers of a writing program persuaded him that the oral interpretation he wished them to perform was too troubling and explosive to use. Outlines his questions and anguish about the incident, and the urgency of dealing with the dilemmas of multiculturalism, racial intolerance, and the teaching of writing.
  • The Relationships between Situated Cognition and Rural Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Understanding of Diversity
    A study examined the influence of situated knowledge embedded in 17 rural preservice teachers' autobiographies on their perspectives on diversity and future classroom practices. Four themes emerged in interviews: situative cognition in rural contexts; cultural groups being together but existing apart; understanding group similarities and differences; and desire to teach in a small rural school.
  • Arteacher, 1995-96
    The official publication of the Michigan Art Education Association (MAEA), this journal serves as a forum for its members to express and share ideas, for the promotion of art education at all levels and for all ages. Issues focus on specific themes, have reprints of conference keynote speeches, and feature regular departments, including: elementary, middle school, and high school divisions news; and the "MAEA Directory" of officers.
  • Discomfort Zones: Learning about Teaching with Care and Discipline in Urban Schools
    Multicultural principles, discipline, and curriculum theory should be integrated and revisited across the teacher-education program via case studies, portfolio assessment, and field experiences. Authors deplore prescriptive, procedural approaches to teaching and value ongoing faculty/student conversations, university alliances with "best" teachers and principals, and trust in children's power.
  • Intercultural Education and Teacher Education in Sweden
    Examines multicultural and intercultural education in Sweden's teacher education and K-12 educational systems, discussing pedagogical strategies in multicultural classrooms and highlighting: Islam in the Swedish classroom; masking differences; focusing on differences; attitudes toward diversity; teachers in multicultural classrooms; and who is included in intercultural education. The paper concludes with an intercultural perspective on teacher education.
  • Why Language Learning Matters
    Most education systems prepare their students to function in the national language and at least one additional language. However, only one-third of U.S.
  • Let's Play Mancala and Sungka! Learning Math and Social Skills through Ancient Multicultural Games
    This article describes how teachers can use two African and Asian games (Mancala and Sungka) to help students with learning disabilities succeed in school. It discusses the history of the games, how to play, the benefits of the games for children with disabilities, and choosing which game to use.
  • Schools Fit for All
    In teacher-education programs, discussions of multiculturalism have been largely separate from those about inclusion of students with disabilities. Classrooms have always been heterogeneous.
  • Theorizing Interracial Families and Hybrid Identity: An Australian Perspective
    Uses narratives from research on interethnic Australian families to explore how interracial families are sites for development and articulation of hybrid identity, examining the significance of place, locality, and situated racial practice in constructing identity and arguing (using Hall's concepts of New Times and hybridity) that interracial subjects are of concern in postcolonial and postindustrial nation states and economics. (SM).
  • Significance of Ethnomathematical Research: Towards International Cooperation with the Developing Countries
    Development assistance was started for the sake of reconstruction of Europe shattered by World War II, and turned its attention to north- south problems starting at the Development Decade by the United Nations in 1960. In spite of all the efforts the international community has made, the situation for poor countries seems to have worsened and many insurmountable problems still lie ahead.
  • Presenting the Wounded Knee Massacre in Books for Children: A Review Essay on Neil Waldman's "Wounded Knee."
    Reviews a book on the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee, suggesting that the author puts a white, European bias on the actual events, which encourages non-Indian young readers to think in limited ways about Indian people and keeps them from identifying with Indian people. (SM).
  • Commitment to Change: The Council on Interracial Books for Children and the World of Children's Books
    The Council on Interracial Books for Children (CIBC), founded in 1965, was formed to promote and develop children's literature that adequately reflects a multiracial society and to effect change in media portrayal of minorities. Past critiques by CIBC of "The Cay" (Theodore Taylor) and "To Kill a Mockingbird" (Harper Lee) are highlighted.
  • Teacher retention, teacher effectiveness, and professional preparation: A comparison of professional development school and non-professional development school graduates
    Compared Professional Development School (PDS) and non-PDS graduates regarding retention in teaching, teaching effectiveness, and perceptions of professional preparation.
  • An assessment framework for professional development schools: Going beyond the leap of faith
    Discusses the challenges in assessing Professional Development School (PDS) impacts, noting examples of assessments from the literature. The paper outlines a conceptual framework for assessment and explains how it may help organize more systematic thinking about PDS evaluation.
  • From Rhetoric to Reality: Opportunity-to-Learn Standards and the Integrity of American Public School Reform
    Focusing on national policy and practice, this paper suggests key recommendations for consideration in the context of standards-based reform, including: produce teachers who are multiculturally literate; re-assess ability grouping and tracking practices; reduce K-3 class size and elementary and secondary school size; expand and improve federal compensatory education programs; and incorporate school reform into broader social reform. (SM).
  • Learning Together
    Describes a teaching assignment at a Department of Defense (DoD) high school in Puerto Rico with bilingual Latin students influenced by island cultures. Discusses classroom cultural awareness and the importance of understanding and appreciating students' backgrounds when cultural or ethnic differences exist in the science classroom.
  • Multicultural Education in the Zionist State--The Mizrahi Challenge
    Reports that the educational experience of Israeli Jews from Islamic countries (Mizrahi Jews) demonstrates the struggle between egalitarian rhetoric (a critical multiculturalism with a social-democratic character) on one hand and a practice of segregation (an autonomist multiculturalism with fundamentalist features) on the other. (Contains 78 end notes.) (PGS).
  • Democratic Understanding: Cross-National Perspectives
    Compares goals, policies, and practices related to citizenship education in the United States and other countries, illustrating how social studies in the United States can give greater attention to democratic discourse, decision making, and civic education. To adequately prepare citizens for the future, social studies educators must pay greater attention to multicultural and global content and pedagogy.
  • The Use of Case Studies in Preparing Teachers for Cultural Diversity
    Cases offer prospective teachers vicarious experience in culturally different settings. This paper uses examples of cases from the Teachers for Alaska Program, which successfully altered the way teachers educated culturally diverse students.
  • Personal Experience as a Guide To Teaching
    Analyzes teacher educators' experiences using storytelling about teaching to prepare second-career teacher candidates to critically reflect on their practice and teach for diversity. Using stories, prospective teachers developed retrospective explanations and justifications for their teaching practices, constructing platforms from which to launch future actions.
  • To Teach Me Is To Know Me
    Proposes three solutions to the continuing problem of disproportionate representation of multicultural students in special education programs: (1) training of culturally and linguistically diverse teachers in teacher preparation programs; (2) inclusion of multicultural education perspectives in special education; and (3) the implementation of culturally responsive instruction in classroom settings. (Author/DB).
  • International Education, Citizenship, and National Standards
    Maintains that if students are to make informed and prudent judgments about the international role of the United States and its foreign policy they need to understand the major elements of international relations and how world affairs affect them. Connects this goal to the National Standards for Civics and Government.
  • Training Urban School Counselors and Psychologists To Work with Culturally, Linguistically, Urban, and Ethnically Diverse Populations
    Discusses the need to train urban school counselors and psychologists to address the needs of culturally, linguistically, urban, and ethnically diverse (CLUE) students, proposing a major CLUE philosophy training program to be incorporated into the existing degree sequence. Notes major competencies needed for multicultural training and presents key readings to help students and professionals familiarize themselves with the competencies.
  • "Our Own Voice": The Necessity of Chicano Literature in Mainstream Curriculum
    Discusses the importance of Chicano literature in mainstream curriculum for higher educational attainment and personal fulfillment, providing historical background on the education of Chicanos, describing Chicano literature, and making recommendations for implementing Chicano literature at the elementary, middle, and high school levels. Notes the importance of teaching Chicano students how their culture differs from other Hispanic cultures.
  • Raising Ethnic Minority Attainment: The Role of Curriculum 2000
    Describes the revision of the National Curriculum in England and discusses the potential of the revised curriculum for raising the achievement of ethnic minority students. The curriculum demonstrates a clear commitment to the education of minorities and includes provisions for citizenship and health education.
  • Reducing Racism in Schools: Moving beyond Rhetoric
    Addresses the problems of racism in schools and reviews the historical and contemporary context of the policies and programs to reduce it. Discusses obstacles and challenges to implementing effective antiracist policies and programs.
  • Democratic Dispositions and Cultural Competency: Ingredients for School Renewal
    This article argues that the current school reform movement of high-stakes testing is misguided. It advocates that democratic dispositions and cultural competency be included in the major goals of schooling and proposes that the purpose of schooling should be determined through public deliberation within diverse communities.
  • The Energy-Culture Connection
    Introduces an activity in which students study the relationships between cultures and energy. Provides students with different scenarios to investigate the possible effects of having or not having energy in different cultures.
  • Opening the Closet: Multiculturalism that Is Fully Inclusive
    A rationale for fully inclusive multiculturalism is proposed by reviewing the experiences of gay and lesbian youth that place them at risk in society and school, how homophobia and heterosexism hurt gay and nongay individuals, and the goals and role of multicultural education in creating a more just and equitable society. (Author/SLD).
  • Multicultural Mosaic: A Family Book Club
    Authors, a library media specialist and a literature/language arts teacher, both recipients of Theodore R. Sizer Fellowships, describe their joint project, "Multicultural Mosaic: A Family Book Club." Their proposal was to strengthen the home-school connection by establishing a book club accessible to all middle and high school students and their families.
  • Multicultural Education: Common Problems Experienced by Various Cultures
    The United States today is a pluralistic society, and a multicultural curriculum is a necessary component of the overall school curriculum. Multicultural education should address the culturally and the linguistically diverse student.
  • From Metaphoric Landscapes to Social Reform: A Case for Holistic Curricula
    Discusses two related dilemmas: (1) the tension between the Western view of historical progress and the realities of modern society; and (2) the tension between old and new approaches to teaching and learning about the arts. Argues that the end result of implementing the Goals 2000 program might diminish the teaching of the arts as discrete subjects.
  • Multicultural Education Program Evaluation, 1995-96. Assessment/Accountability Report
    In 1993-94, the Board of Education of the City of New York distributed more than $1 million to augment existing multicultural initiatives in professional or curriculum development. Districts and superintendencies in the city also designed a 3-year program to facilitate the planning and scope of these initiatives.
  • Increasing Teacher Diversity by Tapping the Paraprofessional Pool
    To increase the representation of people of color in teaching, the potential candidate pool must expand beyond those who are likely to attend college. Paraprofessional school personnel, who typically are from minority groups, constitute a ready source for increasing the supply of diverse teachers.
  • Give Us a Taste of Your Quality! A Report from the Heartland on the Role of the Arts in Multicultural Settings
    Discusses the role of the arts in multicultural education, explaining how diverse students react to and need support in the arts in order to succeed. Focuses on the efforts of urban elementary and secondary schools in Madison, Wisconsin.
  • Rethinking Education: Strategies for Preparing Educators To Teach in a Multicultural Society
    Considers how institutions of higher learning can plan for change to prepare teachers for teaching in an increasingly multicultural society. Discusses empirical-rational, power-coercive, and normative-re-educative strategies.
  • "Making Democracy Real": Teacher Union and Community Activism To Promote Diversity in the New York City Public Schools, 1935-1950
    Examines how an interracial coalition of radical teachers from the Teachers Union of New York City and community activists from Harlem promoted black history and intercultural curriculum and collaborated with parents for school reform during the 1930s-40s. Their efforts to develop more culturally responsive schools were derailed in the late 1940s by the red-baiting of progressive scholars and teacher union activists during the cold war.
  • Multiculturalism, Diversity, and the Impact Parents and Schools Have on Societal Race Relations
    Multicultural research shows that students' attitudes and friendships within a multiracial/ethnic context involve complicated sets of behavioral and attitudinal dimensions. Parents' and teachers' influence can cause children to develop positive and/or negative attitudes about an entire group.
  • School Reform and Student Diversity
    Case studies of eight exemplary schools demonstrate that language-minority students can learn the same academic curriculum as native English speakers while pursuing English literacy. Common school characteristics include a schoolwide vision of excellence, creation of a community of learners engaged in active discovery, and well-designed, carefully executed language-development programs.
  • Issues for Citizenship in the Post-14 Curriculum: What Needs To Be Done To Contribute To Raising the Achievement of Ethnic Minority Pupils
    Discusses the new National Curriculum in England in relation to the government's policies aimed at raising academic standards. The new Unified Framework does have the potential to raise the achievement of all students if it is implemented carefully.
  • Cooperative Learning in Israel's Jewish and Arab Schools: A Community Approach
    Describes the creation of the cooperation, investigation, literacy, and community (CILC) model within a holistic educational project in Acre, a Jewish-Arab mixed city in northern Israel, focusing on the implementation of cooperative learning at the schools and the work of the dropout investigative task force which was created to build community in the city and prevent dropout. (SM).
  • Assessing Preservice Teachers' Zones of Concern and Comfort with Multicultural Education
    Examined preservice teachers' concerns and comfort with concepts and practices advocated as approaches to multicultural education. Data from surveys conducted at different points throughout a cultural-awareness course indicated that students believed in the need for multicultural education but differed greatly regarding choices for preferred approaches to multicultural education.
  • Crisis in the Heartland: Addressing Unexpected Challenges in Rural Education
    Recent increases in cultural and linguistic diversity in Kansas have raised three challenges for educators, especially rural educators: geographic isolation, capacity building, and professional development. Describes innovative, nontraditional programs developed by Kansas State University to help educators meet these challenges, including distance education, collaborative site-specific adaptations of curriculum and instruction, and cross-cultural sensitivity training.
  • Creating Montessori Bilingual Programs. Spotlight: Montessori--Multilingual, Multicultural
    Discusses presentation given by Rigoberta Menchu, 1992 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate, at a meeting with Hispanic child caregivers in California. Discusses family life and childrearing among Guatemala's Mayan people, traditional ceremonies and symbols, becoming a leader, and the Mayan experience of resisting oppression.
  • Reflecting, Reconceptualizing, and Revising: The Evolution of a Portfolio Assignment in a Multicultural Teacher Education Course
    Describes the use of portfolios in teacher education programs and the development and evolution of a portfolio assignment in a course on multicultural issues in special education. Qualitative data that describe students' (n=156) learning is presented, and implications for future practice and research is provided.
  • Revisiting the Supreme Court's Opinion in Brown v. Board of Education from a Multiculturalist Perspective
    Reexamines the Supreme Court's school desegregation opinions, including "Brown v. Board of Education," and concludes that a multicultural society was not part of the Supreme Court's vision of public schools.
  • Ten Points of Debate in Teacher Education: Looking for Answers to Guide Our Future
    Introduces a theme issue by examining 10 dichotomies that describe concerns marking contemporary teacher education in the U.S.: quality versus quantity, majority versus minority, preservice versus inservice, campus versus school site, time versus money, specialization versus generalization, theory versus practice, professional versus public, information versus myth, and long-range versus short-range. (SM).
  • The Pit Boss: A New Native American Stereotype?
    Stresses the importance of U.S. history textbooks containing information that is accurate, realistic, and comprehensive, noting that while there are increased portrayals of Native Americans in today's history textbooks, portraying them in a stereotypical manner that suggests a single type of Indian culture is inappropriate and may affect students' attitudes toward Native Americans or their own self-esteem.
  • Coming to Terms with "Diversity" and "Multiculturalism" in Teacher Education: Learning about Our Students, Changing Our Practice
    Teacher educators addressed negative student responses to a multicultural foundations course by designing an action research study to investigate students' identities, experiences, and beliefs. Analysis of written assignments and focus group discussions uncovered three categories of beliefs about the purposes of schools in relation to cultural diversity.
  • South Africa: A Place for English Teaching Pioneers
    Discusses the importance of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) education in the multicultural country of South Africa, where for the majority of residents, English is the second language. Examines the variety of languages of South Africa, the language-education crisis in South Africa, and the country's need for language teachers.
  • Charting the Development of Multi-Ethnic Britain
    Provides a broad history of the contribution of people of Asian origin, particularly Indian origin, to the development of the United Kingdom, discussing the racial bias they have historically faced in the country's educational, social, and employment systems. A timeline of the Indian presence in Great Britain from 1688-1999 is presented.
  • "If There Is a Better Intercultural Plan in Any School System in America, I Do Not Know Where It Is": The San Diego City Schools' Intercultural Education Program, 1946-1949
    Explores the history of the San Diego City Schools' attempts at intercultural reform after World War II, noting educators' response to specific student and community needs in the wake of racial, ethnic, and religious tensions. The 3-year intercultural program was one of the first of its kind in California and became a model for other cities to follow.
  • Acceptance and Caring Are at the Heart of Engaging Classroom Diversity
    Offers examples from Arizona and Oregon to show how rapidly changing demographics in some regions are accelerating the momentum of restructuring curriculum and assessment to accommodate multicultural students. Argues that organizations structured around the principles of collaboration and process tend to be more caring, to affirm diversity, and to be more successful in generating literacy among their multicultural students.
  • The ABC's Model: Teachers Connect Home and School
    Examines how seven European-American teachers implemented a model called the ABC's of Cultural Understanding and Communication (a literacy process to help develop cultural understanding and communication). Describes how teachers and students investigated cultural and ethnic differences through literacy activities that promoted classroom community and home/school connections, an appreciation of diversity, and reading, writing, listening, and speaking across the curriculum.
  • English-Teaching Institutions in Pakistan
    Discusses English medium teaching in Pakistan and suggests that at the moment it is an elitist preserve and a stumbling block for Pakistanis not taught through English. Indicates that exposing other students to English could counteract growing cultural and religious intolerance in Pakistan.
  • Building an International Student Teaching Program: A California/Mexico Experience
    This paper describes the first year of an international student teaching project conducted in Mexicali, Mexico, which was successful in helping U.S. participants develop cultural understanding and critical teaching skills needed to work with English learners.
  • Technology and Multicultural Education: The Question of Convergence
    Examines the potential for convergence of technology and multicultural education, identifying strategies for and barriers to developing common ground. The paper explains differences and oppositions, examines parallels in the pedagogical work of the two groups, and discusses whether parallel beliefs and pedagogies might support collaborative, simultaneous efforts toward the achievement of both agendas.
  • Comparative and International Education: A Bibliography (1999)
    Bibliography of comparative and international education lists 937 journal articles published 1998-99. Categories are adult education; comparative studies; curriculum and instruction; educational planning, policy, and reform; ethnicity, race, and class; gender; higher education; indigenous and minority education; multicultural education; methodology and theory; primary education; secondary education; special education; study abroad; teacher education; technology; and various geographic regions.
  • What Diverse, Rural Communities Need and Want from Their Teachers
    Two community meetings in a rural multicultural New Mexico school district examined community expectations of teachers. Awareness and sensitivity to cultural differences were identified as the most important qualities.
  • Uprooting and Replacing Positivism, the Melting Pot, Multiculturalism, and Other Impotent Notions in Educational Leadership through an African American Perspective
    Examines traditional notions of positivism and rational-linear thinking that have guided public school practice, interrogating modernist concepts of the melting pot and multiculturalism through an African American and critical theoretical voice. Offers a postmodernist perspective grounded in spirituality that welcomes involving the whole self in school leadership and encourages constructing schools that celebrate democracy, equity, and social justice.
  • A 75-Year Legacy on Assessment: Reflections from an Interview with Ralph W. Tyler
    This article presents an interview with Professor Ralph W. Tyler (a pioneer in the field of education and assessment) that lends some historical perspective to the current alternative assessment movement.
  • School Community Partnerships that Work
    Profiles a number of working partnerships between schools and community organizations that involve service learning. The various projects include neighborhood mapping, study of local ecology, environmental testing, recording local ethnographies, and letter-writing campaigns.
  • Cortes' Multicultural Empowerment Model and Generative Teaching and Learning in Science
    Adapts Cortes' Multicultural Empowerment Model to science teaching and to Wittrock's Model of Generative Learning and Teaching in Science. Encourages all children to learn science and learn about science.
  • A Dialogue About Race and Ethnicity in Education: Struggling To Understand Issues in Cross-Cultural Leadership
    A dialogic approach explores some of the complex issues related to race and ethnicity to identify implications for more effective cross-cultural leadership in diverse schools. Revisited field notes, as well as data from interviews and surveys from various research projects, provide the background about the difficulties of understanding race and ethnicity across different school settings and among educators with different perspectives.
  • Creating Culturally Responsive, Inclusive Classrooms
    This article provides the following guidelines for creating culturally responsive, inclusive classrooms: use a range of culturally sensitive methods and materials, create a classroom atmosphere that respects individuals and their cultures, foster an interactive classroom learning environment, employ ongoing and culturally aware assessments, and collaborate with other professionals and families. (Contains references.) (CR).
  • Tomorrow's schools of education: A report of the Holmes Group
    Among the challenges are the following: the education school's curriculum should focus on the learning needs of the young and development of educators at various stages of their careers; university faculties should include teachers, practitioners, and other individuals who are at home working in public schools; programs that prepare school personnel and teacher educators need to actively recruit, retain, and graduate a more ethnically diverse student body; faculty and students in schools of education should work predominantly in professional development schools rather than on college campuses; education schools should join together to form an interconnecting set of networks at local, state, regional, and national levels to ensure better work and accountability.
  • Unity in Diversity: The Enigma of the European Dimension in Education
    Maintains that efforts aimed at the development of a European dimension to the general education curriculum offered in individual nations' schooling have increased in recent years. Asserts that the immediate goal is to provide young people with opportunities beyond their national borders.
  • Moving Teacher Education in/to the Community
    Describes a set of structured experiences within a preservice teacher education program that helped construct, with the students, a critical perspective toward better understanding pupils' home, community, and school lives. The structured experiences occurred within a New Mexico school community research project combined with a course on families, schools, and communities.
  • Integrating Multicultural and Curriculum Principles in Teacher Education
    Proposes a strategy for incorporating multiculturalism into teacher education; examines why future teachers need to develop multicultural competencies, how to integrate general principles of multicultural education and curriculum design into teacher preparation programs, and how to accomplish integration so prospective teachers will be empowered to continue their professional growth in multiculturalism. (SM).
  • The Controversy around Black History
    Controversy over black history began in 1926, when Carter G. Woodson introduced Negro history week, and has continued into the 21st century.
  • Constructing Conceptions of Multicultural Teaching: Preservice Teachers' Life Experiences and Teacher Education
    Addresses the need for greater understanding of the complex, contradictory nature of preservice teachers' life experiences as they interact with a multicultural, social reconstructionist teacher education course. The paper describes a study of the course and portrays two students' prior experiences that influenced their motivations to teach multiculturally.
  • Mixed Media: A Roundup of CD-ROM and Electronic Products
    Highlights multicultural materials that are useful for teaching students of all ages (elementary through college level). These include such CD-ROM products as "The Ellis Island Experience" and "The Civil Rights Movement in the United States" and such World Wide Web-based products as "Diversify Your World," "American Slavery: A Complete Autobiography," and "International Index to Black Periodicals Full Text." (SM).
  • Citizenship, Democracy and Political Literacy
    Draws on the Crick Report, Education for Citizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools, to examine citizenship, democracy, and political literacy, considering the report's potential as a framework for promoting racial equality in European schools. Discusses the following issues: racism and the education system; racism, democracy, and citizenship education; and human rights and political literacy.
  • Reflexive Reading: Toward a Pedagogy of Alterity
    Examines evolving approaches to otherness in modern culture, analyzing the intertextual relation between Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice" and Bukaee's film, "Avanti Popolo." Considers a possible pedagogy of alterity, examining the texts in their otherness according to Benhabib's 1992 conception of generalized and concertized otherness. Discusses how to promote personal growth and social agency through attentive, reflexive, and reflective reading.
  • Global Education as a Strategy for School Improvement
    Outlines the processes, and some of the obstacles encountered in promoting global education within the schools. Identifies the most prominent obstacle as competing demands for time and resources.
  • Focus on Human Rights
    Maintains that educators have been at the forefront in the quest for equal opportunity. Asserts, however, that there is resistance to recognizing and removing bias from the curriculum and instructional materials.
  • Equity Pedagogy: An Essential Component of Multicultural Education
    Equity pedagogy involves teaching strategies and environments that help diverse students attain necessary knowledge, skills, and attitudes for functioning effectively within a just, democratic society. The article examines how equity pedagogy interacts with other dimensions of multicultural education (content integration, knowledge construction process, prejudice reduction, and social structure).
  • Transformative Teaching for Multicultural Classrooms: Designing Curriculum and Classroom Strategies for Master's Level Teacher Education
    Teacher educators have done relatively little to develop multicultural curricula specific to continuing professional education of inservice teachers. Presents one professor's approach to educating for cultural diversity in a master's level course, "Cultural Issues in Classrooms and Curricula," describing experiences that participants had during the class, explaining the instructional framework, and discussing six teachers' approaches to educational diversity.
  • Overcoming Resistance to Multicultural Discourse through the Use of Classroom Simulations
    Describes how simulations, role plays, and other experiential exercises can be used in educational settings to reduce resistance and encourage discourse on equity issues. These techniques can bring new insights into professional development in multicultural education, raising awareness of hidden biases so teachers feel more comfortable in the classroom and do not reinforce stereotypes and negative patterns.
  • Social Studies Research and the Interests of Children
    Explains that educational research in social studies must identify the practices contributing to children's well-being. Argues that research in social studies should be conducted within real school settings and must focus on the consequences of educational practice for children's development.
  • Our Nation on the Fault Line: Hispanic American Education.
    This report responds to an Executive Order that charges the President's Advisory Commission on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans with improving the education of Hispanic Americans through the study of current educational conditions. The study includes an analysis of the current state of Hispanic American educational attainment and points out the serious work that must be done to promote high quality education for Hispanics.
  • Raising Achievement for Asian Pupils
    Analyzes why ethnic minority groups, such as Asians, are achieving marginal academic success. Analysis of the management, pedagogic, curriculum, resource, and community issues indicates what political guidance might be effective to help improve academic achievement.
  • Including Gypsy Travellers in Education
    Examined the educational exclusion and inclusion of Gypsy Traveller students, exploring how some Scottish schools responded to Traveller student culture and how this led to exclusion. Interviews with school staff, Traveller students, and parents indicated that continuing prejudice and harassment promoted inappropriate school placement and persecution.
  • "The Light in Her Eyes." An Interview with Sonia Nieto
    Presents an interview with educators' educator Sonia Nieto--an author of two important books ("The Light in Their Eyes: Creating Multicultural Learning Communities," and "Affirming Diversity: The Sociopolitical Context of Multicultural Education"). Discusses her books, avoiding stereotypes, current issues in multicultural education, how and what is taught, exploring unconscious attitudes, and linguistic diversities.
  • Expectations Great and Small: The Mental Maps of Teachers and Systems
    Discusses how high and low expectations are communicated to British students both directly by what teachers say and indirectly through the systems and processes through which teachers work. Examines racial and social biases and notes that expectations can be self-fulfilling prophesies.
  • Critical Pedagogy: Translation for Education that Is Multicultural
    Examined the translation of multicultural learning activities in a college classroom into critical pedagogy in public school classrooms. Practicing teachers enrolled in the course completed interviews and surveys.
  • Pluralism and Science Education
    Examined how British preservice science teachers responded to an independent study pack designed to stimulate their understanding of race and culture. The pack provided information on cultural diversity and pluralism in Britain and educational responses to cultural pluralism.
  • Complexities and Contradictions: A Study of Teacher Education Courses that Address Multicultural Issues
    Investigated how a teacher education course on educating diverse students affected student teachers' knowledge and attitudes. Pre- and post-course surveys indicated that the course contributed to some positive attitude changes regarding issues of diversity, though students appeared unable to detect the nuances in their attitudes toward race, class, and gender that could affect their abilities to become effective educators.
  • Immigration and Pluralism in Urban Catholic Schools
    Investigates how Catholic schools are making the transformation from national to multicultural schools as they meet the needs of new immigrants in the inner city. Focuses on the concept of mediating institutions, investigating urban Catholic school principals' willingness to experience diversity.
  • African American Giftedness: Our Nation's Deferred Dream
    Addresses issues that have perpetuated the underrepresentation of African Americans in gifted and talented programs, which include: inadequate definitions, standardized testing, nomination procedures, learning style preferences, family and peer influences, screening and identification, and gifted underachievers. Concludes by discussing alternative theories of giftedness and the implementation of multicultural education in teacher education programs.
  • Multicultural Education: Powerful Tool for Preparing Future General and Special Educators
    This article argues that multicultural education is a powerful and necessary tool for preparing future general and special educators to provide services to students with disabilities from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. It presents ideas for educators willing to assist multicultural learners in maximizing their fullest potential in inclusive settings.
  • Teaching in Dangerous Times: Culturally Relevant Approaches to Teacher Assessment
    Explores some aspects of the debate surrounding teacher assessment and raises questions about what is missing in so-called authentic assessments of teachers. Some proposed assessments may actually reinscribe narrow teaching practices that do not serve children of color and children living in poverty well.
  • Muslims and Sex Education
    Examines objections to sex education practices and calls by British Muslim leaders to withdraw Muslim children from sex education classes. Discusses policy makers' dilemmas as they try to reconcile the public interest with diverse beliefs.
  • Coalescing for Change: The Coalition for Education That Is Multicultural
    Describes the situational complexity of the "Coalition for Education That Is Multicultural," a teacher development group of continuous inquiry into practice by reflective practitioners interested in resistance and collective social action. Interviews with and observations of female members over six months provide information on vision, leadership, empowerment, transformation, and social action.
  • Brown v. Board of Education: The Challenge for Today's Schools
    The 1954 Supreme Court decision in the case of "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas" provided the legal basis for equal educational opportunity.
  • Issues of Discrimination in European Education Systems
    Examines difficulties and complexities in researching issues of discrimination in education across European countries as a first step in devising intercultural curricula. Discusses cross-national differences in terminology, in the ways in which research issues related to racism and interculturalism are formulated, and in the educational experience of children of immigrant and ex-colonial groups.
  • Profoundly Multicultural Questions
    Argues that multicultural education practices in most schools today have not adequately addressed the larger issues of social justice and equal access to educational resources. Discusses four profoundly multicultural questions educators must address: Who's taking calculus? Which classes meet in the basement? Who's teaching the children? How much are children worth? (Contains 25 references.) (PKP).
  • The Enhanced Citizenship Curriculum for Schools in the Bradford District
    Describes efforts to improve Britain's QCA (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority) citizenship curriculum to reflect anti-racism issues, highlighting the Enhanced Citizenship Curriculum for schools in the Bradford District. Presents principles underpinning this effort and looks at six major changes to make the National Curriculum for Citizenship more relevant to Bradford schools.
  • The Invisible Minority: Preparing Teachers to Meet the Needs of Gay and Lesbian Youth
    Teacher educators can help prepare future educators to teach homosexual students by creating safe environments for homosexual students, providing positive role models, selecting relevant curriculum and activities, providing information and training for faculty, securing relevant library holdings, and conducting research on homosexual students. Commitment to all students must include commitment to homosexual students.
  • Educating for Social Competence: A Conceptual Approach to Social Studies Teaching
    Maintains that the broad arenas of the social sciences bind multiple areas of study together, giving added breadth and depth to each. Identifies the basic tenets of multicultural, global, and civic education.
  • A Research Informed Vision of Good Practice in Multicultural Teacher Education: Design Principles
    Presents 14 design principles that explain good practice in multicultural preservice teacher education. The principles fall under the three main categories of (1) institutional and programmatic principles, (2) personnel principles, and (3) curriculum and instruction principles.
  • From Boarding Schools to the Multicultural Classroom: The Intercultural Politics of Education, Assimilation, and American Indians
    Examines American Indian perspectives about public education in the United States, discussing practices that still work to eradicate all traces of their resident cultures. Focuses on the politics of intercultural communication in the academy via a historical and contemporary analysis of American Indians as subjects, objects, and practitioners in the U.S.
  • Multiple Definitions of Multicultural Literature: Is the Debate Really Just "Ivory Tower" Bickering?
    Argues that controversy over the definition of multicultural literature is focused on how many cultures should be covered. Identifies and discusses three key definitions that raise fundamental sociopolitical issues and have differing implications for how multicultural literature is incorporated into the curriculum.
  • Bilingual Learners and the Code of Practice
    Questions the interpretation that the most urgent task in the context of the introduction of the Code of Practice on Identification and Assessment of Special Educational Needs in the United Kingdom is assessment that facilitates identification of bilingual learners with special educational needs, as distinct from their linguistic needs. (SLD).
  • Educational renewal: Better teachers, better schools
    This book provides the vision and rationale for "centers of pedagogy" that can bring schools and universities together in a close, renewing relationship. It proposes a redesign of education that is grounded in a mission of enculturating students in a social and political democracy.
  • From Moral Duty to Cultural Rights: A Case Study of Political Framing in Education
    Addresses questions about how old social causes get revived, and how small, politically insignificant interest groups mount viable campaigns against dominant political views. Examines the strategies of two multifaith religious coalitions in Ontario, Canada, that are gaining political ground by reframing traditional arguments for religious schooling as multicultural issues.
  • "Back Home, Nobody'd Do That": Immigrant Students and Cultural Models of Schooling
    Asks what teachers must know about ethnic backgrounds to facilitate instruction for immigrant students, how cultural values in the United States and values of specific ethnic groups diverge, and how teachers can improve their understanding of other cultures. Answers through firsthand accounts from research interviews with students who are recent immigrants.
  • Multicultural Education and Technology: Perspectives To Consider
    This article discusses multicultural education and educational technology and the digital divide created by lack of access to and use of technology by members of various social identity groups. Educators are urged to re-think technology integration using a multicultural education framework.
  • Bridges on the I-Way: Multicultural Resources Online
    Presents an annotated list of various multicultural education resources that are available free of charge on the World Wide Web. Topics include: multicultural and gender issues in mathematics education; barrier-free education for students with disabilities; women in education; gender and equity reform in math, science, and engineering; and a profile of equitable mathematics and science classroom teachers.
  • Literacies of Inclusion: Feminism, Multiculturalism, and Youth
    Feminist and multicultural practices in public education can help achieve cultural inclusiveness. The paper examines multiple literacies and literacy learning in culturally diverse and gender fair schools, suggesting whole language programs, reader-response criticism, and feminism to expand the educational canon and ensure a public education representing the politics of inclusion.
  • Culture in school learning: Revealing the deep meaning.
    From book:”Introduces pre- and in-service teachers to the centrality of culture in school learning.The book clearly targets teachers as its audience. The book emphasizes multicultural approaches to curriculum development and instructional techniques.
  • Report on the Binational Conference: In Search of a Border Pedagogy (4th, El Paso, Texas and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, January 1999).
    This report contains a synopsis of the binational conference and features brief summaries of all the papers presented at the conference. Over 350 educators, community leaders, and researchers were brought together to discuss the educational extremes found along the border between the United States and Mexico and to investigate instructional approaches that address the unique characteristics of this region.
  • Proceedings of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society, 1999-2000
    This proceedings of the Midwest Philosophy of Education Society contain two presidential addresses: "Separating School and State: An Analytical Polemic" (D. G.
  • Diversity Education for Preservice Teachers: Strategies and Attitude Outcomes
    Analyzed the impact of emphasizing diversity in a foundations of education course. Various instructional strategies addressed issues of intolerance and promoted understanding of the importance of multicultural education for teachers.
  • Obstaculos al aprendizaje--obstaculos a la ensenanza en contextos (Barriers to Learning--Barriers to Teaching in Multicultural Contexts). Papers on Teacher Training and Multicultural/Intercultural Education 25
    This study focused on identifying learning difficulties with a view to incorporating both understanding of those difficulties and methods for minimizing or neutralizing them in multicultural classroom settings. Discussion gives guidelines for teachers to use in analyzing student concepts and approaches to learning, particularly in the question-and-answer format.
  • Using Art To Teach Multicultural Issues
    Art education can be used to stimulate diverse ways of seeing and thinking. Through bringing about an awareness of diversity and various perspectives, art can lead students to enter into a dialog on different cultures and participate in a world where all experiences offer a richness of diversity.
  • What are schools for
    Problems of schooling in the United States are explored in the monograph. Major educational problems are grouped in two categories--confusion over educational objectives and a rush to solve vaguely understood educational problems with ill-conceived action.
  • Combating Racism and Hate in Canada Today: Lessons of the Holocaust
    Maintains that the Holocaust was the catalyst for Canadian antihate legislation. Maintains that, to combat racism and bigotry, it is necessary to use three important tools: (1) the law; (2) community action; and (3) education.
  • Virtual Teaching on the Tundra
    Describes how a teacher and a distance-learning consultant collaborate in using the Internet and Computer Supported Intentional Learning Environment (CISILE) to connect multicultural students on the harsh Baffin Island (Canada). Discusses the creation of the class's database and future implications.
  • "Other" Encounters: Dances with Whiteness in Multicultural Education
    Reviews four books in order to examine the contradictory and ambivalent spaces occupied and co-occupied with multicultural education, locating multicultural education within the Eurocentric regimes of truth (democracy, pluralism, and equality) and addressing how the books rectify or contest the regimes of truth moving within and against the parameters of the white studies configuration of higher education. (SM).
  • Cross-Cultural Partnerships: Acknowledging the "Equal Other" in the Rural/Urban American Indian Teacher Education Program
    Describes the Rural/Urban American Indian Teacher Education Program, based on Baber's (1970) notion of the equal other. It featured cross-cultural partnerships at every possible level.
  • Commentary on "Laying Down the Sword."
    Discusses a book which describes through poetry, essays, and personal life reflections on how it was to grow up as a Black American. Offers information on the author, an educational administrator and 30-year veteran of the music and recording industry; presents the book's introduction; and includes comments about the book by two educational administrators.
  • Women and Gender Studies and Multicultural Education: Building the Agenda for 2000 and Beyond
    Examines some of the tensions between women and gender studies and multicultural education, which include: understanding gender as a category of analysis; theoretical constructions of feminism; and building an educational agenda for social justice in an effort to further the agenda for 2000 and beyond. (SM).
  • Reaching All Families: Creating Family-Friendly Schools
    Recognizing the critical role parents have in developing their children's learning habits, this booklet offers strategies that focus on ways principals and teachers can communicate with diverse families about: (1) school goals, programs, activities, and procedures; (2) the progress of individual students; and (3) home activities which can improve children's school learning.
  • Multicultural Training Needs for Counselors of Gifted African American Children
    Identifies problems related to a counselor's lack of training to assist gifted African American children and proposes steps toward appropriate counselor training. A good multicultural training program has components of consciousness raising, antiracism, and knowledge and skill development.
  • Why Standardized Tests Threaten Multiculturalism
    Oregon's statewide social-studies assessment (a randomized, multiple-choice maze) is part of a "democratic" national standards movement that threatens good teaching and multicultural studies. If multiculturalism's key goal is accounting for historical influences on current social realities, then Oregon's standards and tests earn a failing grade.
  • Suchting on the Nature of Scientific Thought: Are We Anchoring Curricula in Quicksand?
    Discusses the implications of Wallis Suchting's comprehensive search for a definition of the nature of scientific thought for helping students develop scientific thinking skills and an adequate understanding of the nature of science. Discusses implications that relate specifically to the science education community's current conceptions of science process, nature of science, and multiculturalism in science.
  • Making Peace: A Narrative Study of a Bilingual Liaison, a School and a Community
    Explores the role of bilingual liaisons in resolving conflicts and building bridges of understanding between schools and diverse communities, discussing the representation of individuals' voices and narrative forms that engage readers aesthetically and critically; addressing multiple conflicts affecting the lives of minority language students, their families, and schools; and noting the need to move to a paradigm of making peace. (SM).
  • Minneapolis and Brittany: Children Bridge Geographical and Social Differences through Technology
    Presents examples of how computer-mediated communication (CMC) affects language learning, describing a successful CMC project involving a Minnesota middle school and a school in France. Students exchanged electronic mail over two years and eventually produced a student-written, bilingual, multicultural play.
  • Constructing cultural difference and educational achievement in schools
    This volume presents an overview of current anthropological thinking on the education of minority students, bringing the perspectives of educational anthropology to bear on understanding minority education and resolving its inequities. At the core of the book are some papers from an invited session of the American Anthropological Association in 1985, supplemented by other discussions from the same area.
  • Maurice R. Robinson National Mini-Grant Program for K-12 Service Learning
    Briefly describes a service-learning grant program and provides examples of elementary, middle, and high school projects awarded grants in 1996. Projects included efforts to educate the community about river pollution, multicultural murals, and a school activities news show.
  • Voices of Varied Racial Ethnicities Enrolled in Multicultural/Antiracist Education Computer and Telecommunication Courses: Protocols for Multicultural Technology Education Reform
    Two case studies involving graduate education majors illustrate how multicultural/antiracist education and computer-mediated communication can interact successfully and further broaden cultural sensitivity in technology through diverse perceptions and contributions. Facilitating factors included theory-to-practice concepts, Internet dialogue, and student/teacher interactions.
  • Multicultural Education: Implications for Science Education and Supervision
    Describes general development of multiculturalism and multicultural education. Emphasizes multicultural education as a valuable resource for science education, which should be acknowledged, respected, and implemented into the existing science curriculum.
  • Is There a Place for Cultural Studies in Colleges of Education?
    Describes the diverse assumptions and practices defined under the banner of cultural studies, suggesting how the field might have important consequences for individuals concerned with reforming schools and colleges of education. The paper addresses how progressive educators might contribute, examining how the field could be included in the larger discourse of social reconstruction.
  • The Barriers of Diversity; Multicultural Education & Rural Schools
    Addresses issues and problems related to multicultural education in rural schools. Suggests seven propositions to assist educators in bringing cultural awareness to rural education, including understanding that the rural environment has cultural aspects of its own.
  • DBAE: The Next Generation
    Examines the development and evolution of discipline-based art education (DBAE) from its inception in the early 1980s to its current practice. Maintains that the movement's success comes from the support and acceptance of educators in the field.
  • Voices of Cultural Harmony. Spotlight: Montessori--Multilingual, Multicultural
    Asserts the importance of viewing the world as an interrelated system in which each culture and person has important gifts to share. Examines how prejudicial attitudes can be changed through teaching tolerance.
  • Women of Color: Perspectives within the Profession
    To effectively interact with their students, leaders and teachers in sport and physical activity must be familiar with their students' cultural backgrounds. This collection of articles discusses how women of color deal with and have been affected by their racial and ethnic identities in relationship to physical activity and sport.
  • Diversity Within Unity: Essential Principles for Teaching and Learning in a Multicultural Society
    Discusses 12 essential principles to help schools teach democratic values in a multicultural society. Derived from findings of the Multicultural Education Consensus Panel to review and synthesize research on diversity, principles are organized into five categories: Teacher learning; student learning; intergroup relations; school governance, organization, and equity; and assessment.
  • Colloquium on Student Achievement in Multicultural School Districts: Keynote Address
    In educating diverse students, the emphasis should be on what teachers do to make children succeed. Poverty and culture are not impediments to learning, but the quality of service children receive can be an impediment.
  • Published Sources for Identifying Notable Materials
    Lists 100 sources useful to school library media specialists to help identify important materials for children, including books, multicultural materials, nonprint materials, and special features; and for young adults in the areas of books, multicultural materials, nonprint materials, periodicals, reference books and electronic sources, and special features. (LRW).
  • Counseling Muslim Children in School Settings
    Describes basic issues regarding the education and counseling of Muslims. Several issues emerged for concern including home/school relations, family values, peer relations and dating, and curriculum problems.
  • What Makes a Teacher Education Program Relevant Preparation for Teaching Diverse Students in Urban Poverty Schools? (The Milwaukee Teacher Education Center Model)
    Urban teachers need a set of attributes that enable them to connect with children and youth in poverty and to function in dysfunctional school districts. The Milwaukee Teacher Education Center's (MTEC's) urban mission is to prepare educators to teach in the real world classroom of urban schools.
  • Curricular Approaches To Developing Positive Interethnic Relations
    Examines how curricular approaches have helped build positive interethnic relations in a large, ethnically diverse high school, documenting four curricular approaches teacher leaders used to address issues of race and ethnicity and exploring the impact of those approaches on student learning. Illuminates how teacher leaders and administrators created the conditions for these curricular reforms to be sustainable.
  • The Academic Achievement of Minority Students: Perspectives, Practices, and Prescriptions
    This book presents a collection of papers by educators and researchers who discuss various methods of improving minority student achievement.
  • What's a (White) Teacher To Do about Black English?
    Argues that it is important for Black students and for all students to understand that Black English is indeed a language with rules, beauty, and power so that they come to respect it, respect its history, and respect their own bilingualism. (SR).
  • Race Equality and School Improvement: Some Aspects of the Birmingham Experience
    Describes two initiatives--Education for Our Multicultural Society/Success for Everyone and KWESI--illustrating Birmingham Local Education Authority's (LEA's) efforts to enhance racial equity and improve schools. These initiatives demonstrate the LEA as policymaker, providing a clear sense of vision and purpose, and as an enabler and facilitator for change.
  • Lies and Truths in the Future of Britain
    Outlines three educational implications of the report, "The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain": relevance of discussions regarding identity and belonging for citizenship education; stress on gathering and using sound data and suggestions that the education system's failure to collect such data is a prime example of institutional racism; and the argument that the OFSTED inspection system needs radical overhaul. (SM).
  • The Unexplored: Art Education Historians' Failure to Consider the Southwest
    Observes that, as concerns for multicultural education increase, art-education historians' inattention to areas outside of the Northeast becomes apparent. Uses New Mexico as an example of a state meeting multicultural needs in art education, but points out that much information about New Mexico cannot be found in mainstream art-education publications.
  • Teachers for Multicultural Schools: The Power of Selection
    Proposes 12 teacher attributes that are important in multicultural schools, focusing on specific teacher qualities and ideology and explaining that selecting teachers who are predisposed to perform the sophisticated expectations of multicultural teaching is a necessary precondition. Training has important value after preselection, providing it emphasizes being mentored on the job as fully accountable teachers.
  • Learning To Be a Citizen in the Global Age
    Discusses how to teach students to be citizens in today's diverse world, examining current key issues and explaining the varying forms of citizenship and variables associated with access to them. Stresses the need to integrate education for the diverse range of citizen learning models in order to abolish social discrimination forever.
  • Preparing the Way for Student Cognitive Development
    Discusses challenges teachers face with the growing diversity in student populations, examining how teachers can help facilitate diverse students' cognitive development. Examines: stages of cognitive development, multiculturalism, helping students move from one developmental level to another, cultural socialization, field dependence and independence, the Toulmin Model for fostering student cognitive development, cognitive flexibility theory, and knowing students' skill levels.
  • A Developing Model of Teachers Educating Themselves for Multicultural Pedagogy
    This paper reports on the individual student projects of 37 classroom teachers enrolled in a graduate class on multicultural arts education. Identifies points of initial resistance and relates these to patterns of change.
  • Towards a Comprehensive Language Policy: The Language of the School As a Second Language. An Ontario Perspective
    Suggests that Native students entering school in Ontario (Canada) are not treated equally with regard to support for or valuing of their Native language. Overviews research related to second-language instruction and provides policy recommendations for Native-language students, second-language instruction, deaf education, and developing a comprehensive second-language education policy.
  • Science Motivation in the Multicultural Classroom
    Discusses how to integrate into the curriculum the interests of children of all ethnic backgrounds. Includes a rubric for multicultural contributions to science.
  • The Eight Curricula of Multicultural Citizenship Education
    Describes eight curricula that interact simultaneously in multicultural and citizenship education: the prescribed (or intended) curriculum, the taught curriculum, the tested curriculum, the reported curriculum, the hidden curriculum, the missing curriculum, the external curriculum, and the learned curriculum. Notes the importance of researchers in the field of multicultural and citizenship education paying attention to these curricula.
  • Voices from the Trenches: Students' Insights Regarding Multicultural Teaching/Learning
    Describes a conference presentation on "Multicultural Ways of Thinking: Removing the Blinders," in which a teaching strategy called "anonymous sharing" was modeled. The strategy allows participants to share ideas in a nonthreatening way by reading comments made anonymously by others.
  • Breaking Racial Stereotypes by Reconstructing Multicultural Education
    Racial stereotypes and discrimination have destroyed many bright futures by limiting the possibilities of people of color in America. Describes two initiatives that can be implemented in schools in order to help destroy negative images of race and reconstruct a more healthy foundation to build on: multiculturalism across the curriculum and multicultural awareness inservices for teachers.
  • Creating Safety To Address Controversial Issues: Strategies for the Classroom
    Presents seven elements of a safe classroom in controversy-driven courses, where students can exchange ideas rather than emotions as they learn and discuss. The elements are: collegiality, empowerment, role modeling, preparation, shared purpose, reflection, and commitment.
  • Looking at the Evidence More Carefully: Achieving the Ideal?
    Schools could make a major contribution toward a racist-free society by stressing more emphatically the need for teachers and students to critically examine all the evidence before making judgements or taking action. By instilling into children a basic set of rules enabling them to make appropriate judgements, teachers can help people rationally defend their beliefs, opinions, and behaviors.
  • The Language of Disability Diagnosises: Writing and Talking Back in Multicultural Settings
    Fiction, journal, and creative writing can help highlight the positive qualities of diverse minority children. Educational psychology often diagnoses difference as disability.
  • Reflections on the Promise of Brown and Multicultural Education
    Examines the dual meaning of promise (hope and vow) in relation to "Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas," discussing how the two conceptions are implemented in a desegregated school and explaining how multicultural education can help meet the dual expectations of "Brown" as promise/vow and promise/hope.
  • Providing a Culturally Relevant Curriculum for Hispanic Children
    A culturally relevant curriculum lets Hispanic students learn from a familiar cultural base and connect new knowledge to their own experiences, thus empowering them to build on personal knowledge. Teachers must understand Hispanic culture to help students embrace the authentic information they receive.
  • This Issue: already Reading (Children, Texts, and Contexts)
    This theme issue examines various definitions and practices in reading education; highlighting children, their teachers, and the texts and contexts that shape reading. The articles examine the sociopolitical terrain shaping classroom practices, the inclusion of multicultural texts, classroom reading contexts and how they are shaped by social policies, and the construction of reading outside of school settings.
  • Collaborative action research projects: Enhancing teacher development in professional developmnet schools
    Investigated how collaborative action research projects affected five pre-service teachers' professional development while working with on-site teacher educators within a Professional Development School.
  • Special and Gifted Education and the Legacy of "Plessy v. Ferguson."
    Students enrolled in regular, special, or gifted education have much to offer society and should not be consigned to the quarantines of separate schooling, as in the case of "Plessy." Older tracking and assessment models have outlived their usefulness within the current context of a multicultural society. (Contains 20 references.) (MLH).
  • Five Reviews of McLaren's "Revolutionary Multiculturalism"
    Presents five reviews of McLaren's 1997 book, with comments on critical pedagogy, multicultural education, capitalism, social justice, and remarks about student responses to "Revolutionary Multiculturalism." (SLD).
  • Multicultural/Intercultural Teacher Education in Two Contexts: Lessons from the United States and Spain
    Describes the situation in the United States and Spain regarding multicultural/intercultural teacher education. In both countries, educational systems grapple with questions of difference and social justice.
  • Confronting the Challenge of Diversity
    Framing diversity as a problem sets the stage for how communities will react to the change. Unfortunately, American schools have historically seen cultural assimilation of immigrants and nonwhites as central to their mission.
  • Between the Lines: School Stories
    Reviews five stories that can introduce students to youthful narrators whose dreams and thoughts may be quite similar to their own, but whose cultural backgrounds may be very different. Using stories about school experience generates discussion about prejudice and discrimination.
  • Preparing K-12 Teachers To Teach for Social Justice: An Experimental Exercise with a Focus on Inequality and Life-Chances Based on Sico-Economic Status
    Describes a preservice multicultural education and social foundations course designed to expand awareness of and encourage an appreciation and respect for diversity, highlighting an experiential exercise that focuses on institutional inequities of socioeconomic status and that promotes critical thinking, cooperative group work, and making use of multiple intelligences. (SM).
  • Advocating Social Justice and Cultural Affirmation: Ethnically Diverse Preservice Teachers' Perspectives on Multicultural Education
    Investigated the attitudes of culturally diverse student teachers regarding multicultural education, social justice, and cultural affirmation. Surveys of preservice teachers before they were exposed to theories of multicultural education indicated that most were committed to teaching students of color and prioritized tasks addressing issues of social justice and curriculum that affirmed the cultures represented in the classroom.
  • Multicultural Science Education
    Describes multicultural education and lists its basic premises. Explains the importance of science teachers' attitudes in learning.
  • Fulfilling the Promise of Access and Opportunity: Collaborative Community Colleges for the 21st Century. New Expeditions: Charting the Second Century of Community Colleges. Issues Paper No. 3
    This document is part of the New Expeditions series, published by the American Association of Community Colleges. Addressed specifically in this paper is the need for collaboration within and between community colleges if they are to fulfill their role as democratic agencies concerned with access and equity issues.
  • Alternative certification, minority teachers, and urban education
    Uses data from the Schools and Staffing Survey 1993-94 to study the link between alternative teacher certification, minority teachers, and urban education and to compare alternatively and traditionally certified minority teachers in urban schools. Alternative certification appears to be effective in recruiting minority teachers to urban schools.
  • The Lives and Values of Researchers: Implications for Educating Citizens in a Multicultural Society
    Discusses why it is necessary to uncover the values that underlie social science research and reviews reasons objectivity should be a goal of social science research. Presents a typology of cross-cultural researchers and describes the lives and work of some social scientists who exemplify these categories.
  • Class Web Sites Can Offer Enhanced Access to Information for Language Minority Parents and Students: Promising Practices
    Offers suggestions on how to add the power of a free online translator, links, and multicultural search engines to a teacher's classroom home page. Describes the Alta Vista Babelfish online translation service that can be used to translate Web pages on a variety of topics written in German, Spanish, Italian, French, or Portuguese.
  • World Rhythms: Students Make Cultural Connections through Music and Dance
    Describes several programs in which music and dance are used to unlock doors that stereotypes of race, gender, language, religion, or ability have kept shut. Exposure to the music and dance of other cultures helps children's awareness of the diversity of the world and people's essential similarities.
  • To Russia with Music
    Describes the experience of participating in the first United States/Russia Joint Conference on Education, part of the Citizen Ambassador Program. Recounts visits to two Russian music schools where the author was able to observe classes.
  • Giving All Children a Chance: Advantages of an Antiracist Approach to Education for Deaf Children
    Discusses how multicultural approaches to educating children with deafness are often limited to the description of ethnic differences. The need for schools for students with deafness to use an antiracist approach to education that addresses the social and political ramifications of ethnic differences is stressed.
  • ESL Policy and Practice: A Linguistic Human Rights Perspective
    Finds that the reading performance of English-as-a-second-language students and English language learners immersed in regular education classes in a large urban school district was far below grade-level performance, across all categories of measurement; but that the performance of English language learners who had successfully exited from bilingual classes was consistently within or above the average range of performance. (SR).
  • Bridging Multicultural Theory and Practice
    Gaps between multicultural theory and practice present some serious challenges and opportunities for future directions in the field. Instead of arguing about the best way to do multicultural education, it is more useful and empowering to legitimize multiple-levels appropriateness in working toward systemic reform.
  • Recentering Multiculturalism: Moving Toward Community
    Educators (n=21) in the New York Public School system were interviewed about multicultural education. Some viewed multiculturalism as diversity, others as difference.
  • Living and Learning: Experiences North and South
    An Afro-American multicultural education professor explains how struggle has accompanied her academic pursuits and lifelong experiences. She traces her sharecropper family's history, demonstrating the intergenerational effects of undemocratic class, race, and gender relations and showing how her learning experiences have shaped her beliefs as a multicultural educator dedicated to mutual teacher/student respect.
  • Learner Centered Schools as a Mindset, and the Connection with Mindfulness and Multiculturalism
    After acknowledging that learning and knowing are coconstructed social processes created and shared by teachers and students as learners, the paper examines mindfulness and multiculturalism as learner-centered processes. Mindfulness, multiculturalism, and learner centeredness are interdependent mindsets that encourage interplay between teacher, student, and content and that mediate the classroom environment.
  • Counseling Interventions for Students Who Have Mild Disabilities
    Reviews characteristics, problems, and needs of students with mild disabilities. The role of counselors' attitudes and behaviors, and the need for special training in assisting these students are discussed.
  • Connecting Preservice Teacher Education to Diverse Communities: A Focus on Family Literacy
    Describes a teacher education program at the New College of California as an example of efforts to empower new teachers to meet the challenges of educating diverse students. Discusses the candidate intake process, the preprogram reading effort, community building, instructional strategies, and the family literacy program, which is integral to teacher education at the college.
  • Links between Family Life and Minority Student Achievement: Removing the Blinders
    Contends that a range of theories exists in the social science literature about the effects of family processes on the social and academic success of a family's offspring. Identifies major theoretical perspectives that have dominated the literature on families and minority student achievement.
  • Educational Reform, Students of Color, and Potential Outcomes
    Based on middle-class, white values and assumptions, school restructuring proposed in "first wave reform" will increase inequity and stratification and hamper social mobility for minorities. School choice, outcomes-based education, and secondary track systems are critiqued.
  • Our Souls To Keep: From Surface to Deep in Literary Representations Regarding Race
    Presents literary reviews that reveal deeper issues to consider when exploring beyond the surface and reflecting on the racial schisms pervading the United States. The literature examines: a conference on the relationship of education and African American self-concept; the role of black mothers in raising their sons; slave novels; a critical review of speaking; and the Ebonics debate in education.
  • Cultural Factors and the Achievement of Black and Hispanic Deaf Students
    Examines cultural factors affecting black and Hispanic deaf students' achievement, discussing socioeconomic status and single parent families, parent educational levels, non-English speaking environments, inadvertent effects on the deaf child, family view of disability, and parent-school interactions. Notes strategies for developing parents as authentic partners in education and discusses how educators can bridge the educational gap.
  • Why Johnny Can't Write
    Examines why the U.S. educational system often produces students who graduate without adequate writing skills and how the stage was set through a political climate that created lowered expectations of student skills.
  • A Theoretical Framework for Training Monolingual School Psychologists to Work with Multilingual/Multicultural Children: An Exploration of the Major Competencies
    Suggests major competencies needed by all school psychologists, especially when working with culturally and linguistically diverse students. Suggestions were gathered from practitioners in the field, published data, literature reviews, and personal observations.
  • The Accelerating Change of American Diversity
    Discusses three aspects of changes underlying the "New Multiculturalism": intermarriage, "tipping" of racial and ethnic balances (due to differential birthrates and immigration patterns), and transnational cultures. Educational ramifications include changes in administrative record keeping, evolving student identities, acculturation, intergroup relations, and curriculum.
  • Precollegiate Anthropology: Its Potential for the Twenty-first Century
    Considers the role anthropology can play in addressing multicultural issues in education. Maintains that through the study of various cultures students can build respect and value for diversity, understand that human behavior is influenced by culture, and create an understanding of the similarity of human experiences and concerns.
  • "I've Really Learned a Lot, But...": Cross-cultural Understanding and Teacher Education in a Racist Society
    Describes a cross-cultural course offered by the Faculty of Education at the University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) to develop preservice teachers' understanding of aboriginal cultures, taking data from instructors' experiences and student narratives. The paper discusses the lack of understanding in white preservice teachers' views of self and others and the implications for teacher education in a racist society.
  • Care, Community, and Context in a Teacher Education Classroom
    Highlights growth that occurs when attention is paid to what teacher candidates should learn and how they should learn it, describing a class that combined attention to knowing students in a learning community, to constructivist pedagogy, and to core questions about educational equity, which led students to ask very different questions about themselves, their students, and being critical, transformative teachers. (SM).
  • The Disproportionate Representation of Minority Students in Special Education: Responding to the Problem
    Identifies specific content that teacher trainers in special and general education should consider incorporating into preservice training programs in an effort to address the over- and underrepresentation of culturally and linguistically diverse students in special education programs. The fields of multicultural education and bilingual education are seen to offer effective practices and programs for diverse special-needs learners.
  • The Limits of Cross-Cultural Dialogue: Pedagogy, Desire, and Absolution in the Classroom
    Discusses the limits of cross-cultural dialog in the classroom, asking what happens if this togetherness and dialog-across-difference fails to hold a compellingly positive meaning for subordinate ethnic groups. Presents a true story about a classroom in a New Zealand university and a controversial pedagogical strategy employed there.
  • Learning to Teach in a Diverse Setting: A Case Study of a Multicultural Science Education Enthusiast
    Explores the student-teaching experience of a multicultural-science-education enthusiast who taught in a school whose predominant culture was different from her own. Describes thematically the student's teaching experience and examines how encountered constraints were negotiated.
  • Portfolio Assessment and Special Education Students
    The potential of portfolio assessment in special education is addressed, including its value in displaying authentic tasks, a listing of potential portfolio items, advantages of portfolio assessment, possible problems, examples from special education, case studies, and guidelines for developing and using portfolios.
  • Diversity and the New Immigrants
    Schools are inadequately prepared to serve the needs of increasing numbers of culturally diverse students. Problems relate to desegregation, multicultural education, higher quality education, and bilingual education.
  • Intercultural and Multicultural Education as Cultural Encounter and Reflection: Innovative Programs at the International Center for the Study of Education Policy and Human Values
    Describes the International Center for the Study of Educational Policy and Human Values at the University of Maryland. Asserts that it has achieved its two original goals of assisting experienced leaders to integrate an intercultural dimension into programs and develop model intercultural programs and training materials.
  • Moving Marginalized Students Inside the Lines: Cultural Differences in Classrooms
    Discusses what the author has learned in her job at an elementary school in Northeast Mississippi as liaison between English-speaking school personnel and Spanish-speaking students and parents, most of whom are recent immigrants from Mexico. Discusses what the author learned, through extensive talking and questioning of students and parents, about how cultural differences affect classroom activities and interaction.
  • Exploring Ethnic-Specific Literature: A Unity of Parents, Families, and Educators
    Argues that making ethnic-specific literature integral to the literature program enhances a sense of community. Describes ways of exploring and reading ethnic-specific literature, and lists some titles for adults, young adults, and children.
  • Education in Black and White: How Kids Learn Racism--And How Schools Can Help Them Unlearn It
    Before educators can help children unlearn racial prejudice, they should realize that children develop societal stereotypes and biases by age 3 or 4. A Seattle multiculturalism expert suggests that schools create an overall cooperative atmosphere, sponsor cross-school events that bring kids from different backgrounds together, and ensure equal status for students of all races.
  • Reform in Teacher Education through the CLAD/BCLAD Policy
    Analyzes obstacles facing multicultural/bilingual teacher education reform in the context of California's Crosscultural Language and Academic Development (CLAD) or Bilingual Crosscultural Language and Academic Development (BCLAD) programs, which try to translate theoretical frameworks concerned with cultural difference into credentialing policy. This reform effort champions linguistic and cultural diversity but faces formidable obstacles.
  • Pedagogy, Politics, and Schools: Films about Social Justice in Education
    Reviews six films about issues related to multicultural and social justice education in the United States: "It's Elementary: Talking about Gay Issues in School"; "Starting Small: Teaching Children Tolerance"; "In Whole Honor?"; "Children Talk about AIDS"; "Fear and Learning at Hoover Elementary"; and "'Good Morning Miss Toliver.'" (SM).
  • Educating Latino Students: A Guide to Successful Practice
    This book attempts to assist readers in expanding their knowledge base in the area of quality practices for Latino students. The chapters contain many practices that can be implemented in educational settings from preschool to secondary school.
  • Preparing English Teachers To Teach Diverse Student Populations: Beliefs, Challenges, Proposals for Change
    Argues a need for in-depth consideration of principles and practices to prepare teachers for classrooms they will face in the future. Notes problems created by the disparity between increasing student diversity and their overwhelmingly white, female English/language arts teachers.
  • Multicultural Education and the Civic Mission of Schools
    This paper discusses key elements of current multicultural challenges of the traditional civic mission of schools. It appraises these challenges to suggest their strengths and weaknesses--contributions and pitfalls--with regard to fundamental U.S.
  • Melting Pot to Tossed Salad
    Encourages teachers to interact with students and students to interact with each other to facilitate cultural awareness and respect for differences. Proposes a number of classroom activities, such as "how to" presentations, studies of cultural folklore, and a puppet show.
  • The International Baccalaureate: International Education and Cultural Preservation
    Examines how well the International Baccalaureate (IB) achieves its aims of inculcating international attitudes while maintaining students' cultural identities. Finds that international attitudes may be more affected by the social environment of IB programs than by the curriculum; success at cultural maintenance varies by culture, with Western cultures being better supported.
  • Black English in a Place Called Waterloo
    For many black students, the school language differs significantly from the home language, but preservice education rarely examines this issue. This article examines implications for teaching children who use two different forms of language to navigate the demands of their contrasting sociolinguistic speech communities, discussing: how teacher attitudes and knowledge affect practice; dual language demands; ebonics; and language as power.
  • The Theoretical Foundations of Professional Development in Special Education: Is Sociocultural Theory Enough?
    This article reviews sociocultural, multicultural, and critical pedagogical theories and suggests that an adequate and sufficient theoretical framework for professional development in special education must explicitly and directly address issues of power, discrimination, and relative status that underlie dilemmas of practice. It offers vignettes of such dilemmas, with reference to the 1998 Council for Exceptional Children's professional standards.
  • Community Leadership in a Pluralistic Society
    Describes the characteristics of effective leadership and leaders, observing that good leadership entails the judicious balancing of stability and change, the incorporation of diverse opinions including those of subordinate as well as dominant individuals and groups, and the ability to learn from school discord and failure. Asserts that good leaders are people who live in, between, and beyond their indigenous groups.
  • Multiculturalism and Schools: The Struggle toward Open-Mindedness
    To counter the backlash against multiculturalism, educators must create a social environment for learning that encompasses respect, civility, integrity, and care. They should take into account the increasingly complex understanding of what common culture is and how it evolved.
  • Case Method in Physical Education Higher Education: A Pedagogy of Change?
    Examines the use of the case method to reform physical education teacher education. Reviews research on the use of cases in other professional preparation programs, and on multicultural education and case method, and technology-based cases.
  • How Will Diversity Affect Literacy in the Next Millennium?
    Presents four brief essays discussing how diversity will affect literacy in the next millennium. Notes competing goals and practices in education that will shape what happens in the next 25 years; discusses tensions in teaching and learning that accompany diversity and literacy; discusses the role of literacy researchers; and offers anecdotes highlighting critical questions regarding diversity and literacy.
  • Lessons Learned: Exploring Past Cultural Experiences of the Chicano/Mexican American Ambience To Strengthen Contemporary Multicultural Education
    Explored the use of phenomenology research to explore lessons learned and their potential for inclusion in multicultural education, focusing on the Chicano/Mexicano experience as farmworkers in northern Colorado. Interview data indicated that respondents maintained a high context and connection with their primary culture.
  • A Call for a Multicultural Revolution. Challenges & Hopes: Multiculturalism as Revolutionary Praxis. An Interview with Peter McLaren
    Discusses Peter McLaren's theories of critical pedagogy, which is underwritten by a Marxist philosophy and a critique of global capitalism. McLaren believes that capitalist exploitation is the driving force for the institutionalized racism that is so prevalent in Western society.
  • The Asset of Cultural Pluralism: An Account of Cross-Cultural Learning in Pre-Service Teacher Education
    Highlights a Canadian preservice educator in a cross- cultural course who worked with student teachers to understand how they encountered one another's diverse attitudes and values, promoting a theory of cross-cultural education that validated experiential interactions as moments of learning. This led to a vision of pluralism where diversity helped create interpretive competence through encounters of difference and self-study.
  • Approaches to Multicultural Education in Preservice Teacher Education: Philosophical Frameworks and Models for Teaching
    Connects teacher education to conservative, liberal, and radical theories of multicultural education, particularly preservice education, arguing that a more eclectic theoretical avenue must be encouraged in order to transform schools, particularly in urban environments. Discusses practical avenues to promote such a multilayered interpretive/analytical approach to social change.
  • Welcoming the Culture of Computing into the K-12 Classroom: Technological Fluency and Lessons Learned from Second Language Acquisition and Cross Cultural Studies
    Discusses the integration of innovative technologies into the K-12 curriculum and its impact on instructional programs for linguistically and culturally diverse students. Describes the debate over whether the culture of computing is inclusive or exclusive, examining: educational technology standards; information technology and fluency; speech registers; postulating registers of information technology fluency; and the role of automaticity in developing fluency.
  • Revista de Investigacion Educativa, 2000 (Journal of Educational Research, 2000)
    Articles in this volume focus on the following: teacher evaluation and quality management in education.
  • Multiculturalism, Race, and Education
    Reports on a telephone survey that examined the extent of support given to multicultural education (MCE) by whites and blacks. Results from 348 respondents found strong support for the concept of MCE, but issues of implementation were more controversial with interracial differences being generally larger than intraracial differences.
  • Down with School Improvement--Some Polemical Notes
    Criticizes England's School Improvement Ideology (SCIMPI) campaign. It argues that SCIMPI underplays the basics of school improvement, ignores school practices that damage racial relations, place more emphasis on individual schools rather than the school system, and has clandestinely embedded within it destructive improvement practices that can further damage already disadvantaged students.
  • Anti-Bias Teaching To Address Cultural Diversity
    Multiculturalism must be integrated into classrooms and the curriculum, and it must be all-encompassing, taught through formal lessons and modeled and demonstrated at all times. Describes how teachers can create an anti-bias curriculum and promote a multicultural or anti-bias classroom.
  • Selecting Computer Programs and Interactive Multimedia for Culturally Diverse Students: Promising Practices
    Discusses issues in selecting computer programs and interactive multimedia for culturally diverse students, including the necessity of including diverse cultural referents and acknowledging the cognitive style of students who will be using the programs. (SLD).
  • Drama Modes, Meanings, Methods and Multicultural Education
    Suggests that there is a strong affinity between multicultural and theater education. Argues that, through drama and theater, individuals can acquire a clearer visualization and deeper understanding of the topics, issues, themes, and concepts of multicultural education.
  • Excellence through diversity
    The need to recruit minority candidates to teaching is too often overlooked amidst growing concern over a looming shortage of qualified teachers for U.S. public schools.
  • Culturally Competent Services: Bibliography of Materials from the NCEMCH Library.
    Culled from the National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health reference collection, this list contains 186 materials which focus on assessing current services for cultural sensitivity, developing culturally competent services, or providing services in a multicultural health care context.
  • Un-Separate and Still Unequal? Three Books about American Education and Race at the End of the Liberal Century [Book Review]
    Three recent books from different contexts bring new attention to the issues of race and education in the United States. These books are helpful to those considering the reasons for the underachievement of African-American students in the United States at the end of the 20th century.
  • An America Curriculum?
    Using data from a one-year field study of elementary and secondary social studies classes, the paper examines images of America actually being conveyed in elementary and secondary school classrooms, considering how schools are serving the purposes of Americanization and assimilation while the traditional study of America is being renegotiated and discussing what is influencing the provision of certain messages. (SM).
  • A Faceless Bureaucrat Ponders Special Education, Disability, and White Privilege
    The first part of this article critiques categorical approaches to special education, overrepresentation of minority children in special education, inclusion and exclusion, and white privilege. The second part of the article describes the potential of multicultural education, transformation, and participatory leadership approaches to address the issues raised in the critique.
  • The Understanding of Local Context in Teacher Education
    The teacher education program at Western Montana College helps preservice teachers understand how the local context of the rural school and its community impacts student learning and the teacher's role. Coursework and multiple field experiences help preservice teachers identify their own cultural background and give them experience in teaching culturally diverse students.
  • Restructuring Urban Schools: A Chicago Perspective
    The Chicago (Illinois) School Reform Act of 1988 set in motion a chain of reform efforts that have been the subject of considerable study. The plan emphasizes returning control of the schools to parents and the community through school-based management and local school councils.
  • Oppressor: The Educational System
    In this critique of elementary and secondary education in the United States, the first section discusses the history of the U.S. educational system and how the development of the schools' curricula and assessment programs have been adapted to the white, male, Eurocentric style of learning.
  • Multicultural Education and Culture Change: An Anthropological Perspective
    Discusses the difficulty inherent in teaching multiculturalism within a nation as culturally diverse and changing as the United States. Teaching cultural awareness from an anthropological perspective is explored.
  • The Harvard Education Letter, 1996
    This document is comprised of volume 12 of the Harvard Education Letter, published bimonthly and addressing current issues in elementary-secondary education.
  • Inclusive Schooling Practices: Pedagogical and Research Foundations: A Synthesis of the Literature that Informs Best Practice About Inclusive Schools
    This monograph summarizes the literature base that informs current understanding of the best approaches to support students with disabilities in inclusive settings.
  • The Multicultural Worlds of Pueblo Indian Children's Celebrations
    Examines the ways that each of three cultures (Pueblo, Hispanic, and mainstream American) expresses values and beliefs in the celebrations that engage Pueblo children throughout the year. Discusses the secrecy of Pueblo celebrations and the need for educators to use discretion when determining the legitimacy of Pueblo students' absences and sleepiness.
  • A Multicultural Education Experience: The Importance of Process
    Discusses issues and problems in the development and implementation of multicultural education programs, focusing on how a group of educators sought to help early childhood teachers deal with the increasing number of intergroup conflicts among their pupils. These educators developed a multicultural education resource book.
  • Human Services and the Full Service School: The Need for Collaboration
    A full service school is one that meets the most basic needs of children and their families. This book discusses how these needs can be met within the school setting in order to produce the key desired outcomes of increased learning and easier teaching.
  • The Schooling of Multiracial Students. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 138
    The purpose of this digest is to help educators develop a curriculum for multiracial students that fosters their ability to develop a positive identity and achieve academically. To this end, the digest briefly reviews identity formation in multiracial children and then presents schoolwide and classroom strategies that have been shown to be particularly effective with multiracial students and that also promote all children's understanding of racial issues.
  • Whiteness and White Identity in Multicultural Education
    Reviews two books on white identity in multicultural education, examining trends toward linking white race consciousness to effective multicultural pedagogy (which multicultural proponents either embrace or ignore) and discussing whether this discourse advances the field. Suggests that if these texts are designed for preparing white teachers for diverse students, they do not move multicultural education beyond hope and advocacy.
  • Dewey, Freire, and a Pedagogy for the Oppressor
    Asserts that cultural diversity and democracy will always be in conflict with each other, examining oppression in a democratic society; an oppressor's view of the world; a pervasive dualism in perspectives; the inadequacy of current efforts to overcome the conflict between the oppressors and the oppressed; traits of oppressors that must be changed; a three-pronged approach to consciousness raising; common themes within this approach; and underlying assumptions. (SM).
  • Social Inclusion: Would Dickens Approve?
    Discusses exclusion of ethnic minority students from school in Britain as it reflects the operation of complex differential expectations and assumptions. Data from several studies show that exclusions have been racialized and that black boys are often excluded or disciplined for showing culturally specific behaviors.
  • A Future for Multi-Ethnic Scotland: Evaluating the Parekh Report
    Analyzes propaganda methods used by radical opponents of the Parekh report, The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain, connecting the forms of challenge developed to the Macpherson report on the findings of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry. Results suggest that the ideological and intellectual struggle between antiracists and radical conservatives is sharpening, especially around the concept of institutional racism.
  • Science Education in a Multiscience Perspective
    Argues that a multiscience perspective on science education affords richer implications for reflection and practice than does multiculturalism. Recognizes the existence of various types of science at play in all science classrooms, especially personal science, indigenous science, and Western modern science.
  • QCA and the Politics of Multicultural Education
    Suggests that Britain's QCA (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority) has not taken responsibility for an anti-racist approach to curriculum or pedagogy. Instead, this has been left to individuals and local authorities.
  • Celebrating Pluralism: Art, Education, and Cultural Diversity. Occasional Paper 5
    After providing a historical context for art education, this text explores the implications for art education from the broad themes found in art across the cultures. Discussions focus on how art education programs promote cross cultural diversity in art, affirm and enhance self-esteem and pride in students' cultural heritage, and address issues of ethnocentricism, bias, stereotyping, prejudice, discrimination, and racism.
  • The Road to Multicultural Education: Potholes of Resistance
    Presents data on the extent to which preservice and inservice teachers and preservice school counselors approached acceptance of the tenets reflected in the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education's statement endorsing multiculturalism, multilingualism, multidialectism, empowerment, equity, and cultural and individual uniqueness. Survey data illuminate tensions teacher educators experience as they conduct multicultural training activities.
  • Multiculturally Challenged
    Voices the lament and the anger of a lone black teacher in an all-white school district in Wyoming trying to teach the "other" while simultaneously representing the "other." (SR).
  • Issues of Culture in Mathematics Teaching and Learning
    Demonstrates through theory and application that educators can teach mathematics to include more of the often excluded students, especially African Americans. Educators must consider the culture of students as they adopt an accommodating cultural pedagogy to enable students to become part of a mathematics culture.
  • Multicultural Education: An International Guide to Research, Policies, and Programs
    This book is a reference work that examines a sample of the world's educational systems. The countries included are those that participated in an international study of multicultural education, along with other countries to provide a solid sampling of nations on all continents.
  • Multiculturalism and Severe Disabilities
    This article discusses the need for educators to acquire the knowledge and skills necessary to help students with severe disabilities from mainstream groups to develop cross-cultural knowledge, values, and competencies. It outlines goals for multicultural understanding for educational researches, for teacher educators, and for school leaders and teachers.
  • Issues in Educating Students with Disabilities. The LEA Series on Special Education and Disability
    This book is designed to reaffirm the value of special instruction and to provide information on current research and practice which shows productive and successful outcomes. It addresses the definition of disabilities, the assessment of disabilities, instruction, special populations, special education legislation and policy, and integration.
  • Multiculturalism and Music Re-attached to Music Education
    Suggests that the role of music and music education in supporting culture is very powerful. Focuses on students learning about music as opposed to performance.
  • School Counselors' Universal-Diverse Orientation and Aspects of Their Multicultural Counseling Competence
    Explores the relationship between school counselors' universal-diverse orientation (UDO) and their self-reported multicultural counseling knowledge and awareness. It was hypothesized that after accounting for the number of previous multicultural counseling courses taken, school counselors' UDO would contribute significant amounts of the variance to their self-perceived multicultural counseling knowledge and awareness.
  • Gathered Around the Fire of the Heart
    Examines the sacredness of language from the early history of language, and how poetry from all times and cultures connects and heals. Describes the author's work in a poets-in-the-schools program and how the children's poems healed the heart of a Chumash Indian elder.
  • Multicultural Literature in the Classroom
    Discusses three recent books for educators that deal with the challenges of teaching literature in a diverse society; ways in which multicultural literature creates opportunities for both transformation and resistance; ways to use multiethnic literature in elementary and junior high classrooms; and multicultural perspectives in teaching literature. (SR).
  • Empowering Pedagogies That Enhance the Learning of Multicultural Students
    Discusses the tenets of critical pedagogy, describing research on the presence of those tenets within discourse patterns and pedagogical practices in urban, community-based classrooms. Discourses and pedagogies of three female, African American teachers are highlighted, examining how teachers challenge students to consider alternate life possibilities, become critical thinkers, and consider transformation of their own and others' life situations.
  • Collaborative Interventions for Assisting Students with Acquired Brain Injuries in School
    Brain injury is a leading cause of disability in students. These students will need support throughout their school career.
  • Engaging Effectively with Culturally Diverse Families and Children
    Describes a practice model that school social workers can use when helping culturally diverse families. Model emphasizes the importance of building a perspective for understanding culture and presents a framework for cross-cultural practice that includes some basic skills for effective transactions.
  • The Admission and Induction of Refugee Children into School
    Examines induction and admission practice for refugee school children into Britain's public schools, highlights the educational issues and concerns of newly-arrived refugee families, and discusses what schools can do to make their entry into the school system less problematic. The author explains how good admission and induction practices can build strong school/parent partnerships that benefit children.
  • Teaching Other People's Ideas to Other People's Children: Integrating Messages from Education, Psychology, and Critical Pedagogy
    Educational endeavors are enriched by diverse forms of knowledge and experience, and, particularly in urban schools,by diverse children and teachers. An important educational task is teaching other people's ideas to other people's children.
  • Preparing Teachers of Color at a Predominantly White University: A Case Study of Project TEAM
    Examined the experiences of preservice teacher participants in Project TEAM, an initiative at a predominantly white university to increase the number of minority students who completed teacher education and became teachers. Case study data highlight three themes: developing a sense of community with minority student peers, developing a stronger ethnic identity, and working for social justice through multicultural education.
  • A Study of the Mismatch Between Native Students' Counseling Needs and Available Services
    Examined the counseling needs of First Nations youth (n=54), living in five major First Nations communities of Cape Breton, Nova Scotia. Identified five types of needs based on survey and interview data.
  • The Language and Literacy Spectrum, 1996. A Journal of the New York State Reading Association
    Sharing concerns and interests of New York State educators in the improvement of literacy, this annual journal raises educational issues such as current thoughts about literacy instruction, educators' roles, literacy in its many forms, college-community literacy partnerships, and recommended reading materials.
  • Seeking Common Ground. In-Service
    The former superintendent of the Piscataway (New Jersey) Township Schools describes the hows and whys of diversity workshops for school-district employees. (LMI).
  • Multicultural Education Requirements in Teacher Certification: A National Survey
    Investigated multicultural education requirements by various State Departments of Education for issuance of teaching credentials or teacher certification. Responses from 51 questionnaires indicate 25 states had requirements for multicultural education.
  • A Mean Wink at Authenticity: Chinese Images in Disney's "Mulan."
    Offers a critique from two Chinese educators with regard to the historical, cultural, linguistic, and artistic authenticity of Disney's animated film "Mulan." Argues that the filmmakers robbed the original story of its soul and "ran over Chinese culture with the Disney bulldozer," imposing mainstream cultural beliefs and values. (SR).
  • The Progressive Development of Multicultural Education before and after the 1960s: A Theoretical Framework
    Discusses how past human struggles have been funneled into multicultural education, offering an explanation for why it was inevitable that the term multicultural education would first appear in the United States, discussing the development of multicultural education since the 1960s, and presenting a theoretical perspective and framework for viewing the development of multicultural education. (SM).
  • Teachers and Pluralistic Education
    Defines the concept of pluralistic education and discusses its goals. Interviews a number of teachers to investigate their conceptions of education and their response to the idea of pluralistic education.
  • Beyond Classroom-Based Early Field Experiences: Understanding an "Educative Practicum" in an Urban School and Community
    Examined the experiences of preservice teachers in an urban school and community-based early field experience (integrated with foundations of education and general methods courses). Data from observations, interviews, reflective writings, and focus groups highlighted five categories of student experience: deepening multicultural, eye-opening and transformational, masked multicultural, partially miseducative, and escaping experiences.
  • Using Our National Diversity as an Educational Resource
    Provides personal perspectives, both from a teacher and her students, on issues of multiculturalism and diversity. Recounts a number of incidents that illustrate some of the trickier aspects of multicultural education ("How do you feel about arranged marriages?").
  • Service Learning for a Diverse Society: Research on Children, Youth, and Prejudice
    Reviews psychological and educational research on prejudice and intergroup relations to produce suggestions and guidelines for improving the combined educational goals of service learning and multicultural education. Recommends starting early, emphasizing critical thinking, connecting activities to appropriate stages of cognitive development, and employing role playing and cooperative learning.
  • Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (25th, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, May 25-29, 2001)
    This document contains the proceedings of the 2001 annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG) held at the University of Alberta, May 25-39, 2000.
  • The Contemporary World History Project for Culturally Diverse Students
    Describes the Contemporary World History Project (CWHP), a year-long, two-part program that integrates the study of world problems within a traditional world history curriculum. Outlines the two parts, historical background and a simulation, and the objectives fulfilled by CWHP.
  • By Virtue of Being Human
    Describes some efforts to ensure that teachers in the United States understand and teach about the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Although the declaration is 50 years old, it is not as well known in the United States as it is in other parts of the world.
  • Class, Cultism, and Multiculturalism
    Globalization has hurt both developed and developing countries. Capitalism's relations of exploitation can hurt people of color in disabling ways.
  • Improving Urban Schools in the Age of Restructuring
    "Restructuring schools in urban settings requires a commitment to establishing and evaluating equity and excellence. Beliefs and values about schooling and the interests of all students should be made explicit and examined by educators in an attitude of critical inquiry.
  • Becoming Multicultural: Focusing on the Process
    Focuses on the importance of helping students develop intercultural competence and suggests ways to integrate activities for this purpose into instruction. Activities are presented to promote effective student strategies for intercultural competence.
  • Standards & Inclusion: Can We Have Both?
    The move toward higher standards in our nation’s schools has raised a major dilemma for educators committed to the inclusion of students with disabilities. How can these students truly succeed in a learning environment where academic standards and formalized testing are increasing?” This video discusses the following: The Consequences of Higher Standards; The Seven Factors of Successful Inclusion; the Reauthorization of I.D.E.A.; and the Restructuring of Our Schools.
  • Global Winners: 74 Learning Activities for Inside and Outside the Classroom
    This book provides 74 learning activities to help K-12 students, college students, and even seniors develop the global perspective needed for the 21st century. Each learning exercise is preceded by an introduction that sets the theme of the activity and states its purpose or objective.
  • Excellence through diversity
    The need to recruit minority candidates to teaching is too often overlooked amidst growing concern over a looming shortage of qualified teachers for U.S. public schools.
  • Using Immersion Experiences to Shake Up Preservice Teachers' Views about Cultural Differences
    A cultural-immersion project helped preservice teachers at the University of Nevada gain knowledge about other cultures and insight into how it feels to be part of a minority culture. Data from students' writeups of the projects indicate that students gained much from the experience (e.g., new information about specific cultures, challenged beliefs, and enhanced personal and professional skills).
  • Teaching What's Dangerous: Ethical Practice in Music Education
    Proposes the educational activities in a modern, multicultural society and explains that these aims have strong implications for the ethical import of music education. States that music has a significant role in the personal and social development of students.
  • Bibliography of Race Equity/Multicultural Library Materials. 1996 Spring/Summer Edition.
    This annotated bibliography includes all of the race equity and multicultural materials available from the Nebraska Department of Education's Equal Educational Opportunity Project. A table listing works by author's last name provides quick access to the topic and grade level.
  • Multiculturalism and Diversity in Drama/Theatre Education: A Preconference
    Describes how the 1998 Multiculturalism and Diversity in Drama/Theatre Education: A Preconference came about, and briefly describes its activities and success. Offers ideas for future activities, and reminds readers of the critical necessity for action around issues of multiculturalism and diversity that transforms dreams into reality.
  • Asian, American, and Deaf: A Framework for Professionals
    Presents a multicultural framework for thinking about, assessing, and working with people with deafness from Asian and Asian Deaf backgrounds. Emphasis is placed on cultural awareness and cultural competence for professionals and on building bridges across cultural networks.
  • Sociopedagogy: A Move beyond Multiculturalism toward Stronger Community
    Examines how teacher educators can confront diversity while addressing preservice teachers' individual uniquenesses, describing one university's required course on pluralism. By critically examining their histories, educators learned the importance of going beyond issues of race and ethnicity.
  • Multicultural Is Who We Are: Literature as a Reflection of Ourselves
    This article discusses multicultural children's literature, the need for teachers to include multicultural children's literature in their teaching, how teachers can encourage pluralism, and evaluating and selecting multicultural literature titles. A selection of 17 multicultural books for use in the classroom is provided.
  • Why Aren't Teachers Being Prepared To Teach for Diversity, Equity, and Global Interconnectedness? A Study of Lived Experiences in the Making of Multicultural and Global Educators
    Investigated why and how teacher educators bridged the gap between multicultural and global education to prepare teachers for diversity and equity. Respondents wrote about lived experiences which shaped their world views.
  • The Multicultural Movement and Its Euphemisms
    Discusses educational implications of the multicultural movement, highlighting: relativism versus anti-relativism; consequences of institutionalizing differences; implications of confusing culture with identity; tensions involved in cultural identification; African Americans as an example of race, class, and education; the neglected variable of social class; black culture versus black identity; subjective culture, self-esteem, and community; and positive approaches to these debates. (SM).
  • Teaching Tools
    Reviews books and videos for multicultural education and cultural awareness in elementary and secondary classrooms. The 28 works reviewed focus on gender and minority experiences, U.S.
  • Exploring Culture through Children's Connections
    Shares one teacher's attempts to highlight diversity and children's cultures in authentic ways. Examines three children's connections to culture and their own cultural identities by looking at issues they explored across the school year (family, family and religion, and ethnicity).
  • Bilingual Education: Beyond Linguistic Instrumentalization
    Examines potential ways to view bilingual education in a more liberatory perspective. Summarizes the global, historical context of bilingual education, and outlines principles and features of six models of formal bilingual education.
  • The International Assembly
    Looks at the missions and goals of the International Assembly of the National Council of Teachers of English, a global multicultural network promoting communication and cooperation for international exchange of teaching practices, literature, literacy, curriculum development, and research in English. Suggests some criteria to look at when developing an international curriculum.
  • Reducing Education Students' Ethnocentrism: Difficulties and Possible Solutions
    Many universities promote cultural awareness by directly teaching sensitivity toward cultural diversity. Because students tend to be somewhat ethnocentric, which is not consonant with the display of culturally tolerant attitudes, multicultural education can help them acquire more tolerant attitudes.
  • Teaching and Learning about the Holocaust through Visiting an Exhibition
    Evaluates a teaching initiative that aimed to teach about the Holocaust through a traveling exhibit on Anne Frank. Data from 10 case study schools show the success of the approach and some ways in which the teaching relevance might have been strengthened.
  • Experience, Subjectivity and Christian Religious Education: Canadian Catholic Education in the 21st Century
    Canadian Catholic education has increasingly been defended from a theological rather than a philosophical position. This article reflects on how the contemporary stress on experience and subjectivity influences Canadian religious education and how these qualities may fashion a distinct, pluralistic Canadian Catholic education for the future.
  • Constructivism and Multicultural Education: A Mighty Pedagogical Merger
    Examines three ways that constructivism is aligned with multicultural education in formal educational environments: (1) learners organize ideas in unique ways; (2) learners' self-awareness and self-concept influence learning; and (3) a learner's personal history filters new information. (GR).
  • Race Equality Policies and Practice: Resources on the Internet, Summer 2002
    Presents resources available on the Internet that deal with racial equality policies and practice. Topics include legal requirements in education; institutional racism; community cohesion; diversity; curriculum; national identity; citizenship education; race and identity; suppliers, booksellers, and publishers; links with schools in other countries; refugee education; dealing with bullying and conflict; and language and bilingualism.
  • Three Ways To Achieve a More Equitable Representation of Culturally and Linguistically Different Students in GT Programs
    This article posits that increasing minority teachers in gifted and talented (GT) programs will lead to an increase of minority students in GT programs. Ways to recruit and prepare minority teachers are discussed, as are multicultural and bilingual options for GT programs.
  • Equity for Black Americans in Precollege Science
    Explores many of the experiences that Black Americans have in science education in the United States and proposes changes so that Black Americans have an equitable opportunity to engage in and learn quality science. Suggestions include preparing multicultural science teachers, eliminating tracking in schools, equipping classes with science curriculum materials and technology, and supplying financial resources.
  • Moving from an Obsolete Lingo to a Vocabulary of Respect
    In the postcolonial era, vocabulary must be developed that communicates a belief in equality through word choices that promote respect. Citizens of the global community have the right to name themselves, define their histories, and live according to their cultures.
  • Nailing Jell-O To the Wall
    Discusses various facets of curriculum theorizing in education, describing five characteristics of contemporary curriculum theorizing and expanding on two: (1) the politics of social and cultural theory and social difference, which undergirds and is the dominant premise from which much curriculum, theorizing is currently undertaken and (2) the struggle between traditionalist and reconceptualization approaches to curriculum theorizing. (SM).
  • Understanding Puerto Rican Culture Using Puerto Rican Children's Literature
    Presents examples of Puerto Rican children's literature, explaining how these books facilitate understanding of Puerto Rican culture. Describes criteria used to evaluate Puerto Rican children's literature and how to acquire the books using Puerto Rican bookstores, publishers, and distributors.
  • Ideals for Citizenship Education
    Discusses the importance of citizenship education in the United Kingdom and throughout Europe, explaining that citizenship education in schools provides an opportunity for young people to see justice as everyone's business and to learn how to ask questions, think critically, and see that injustice anywhere is a threat to justice everywhere. (SM).
  • The Limits of Educational Policy and Practice? The Case of Ethnic Minorities in The Netherlands
    Describes four types of immigrants to The Netherlands since World War II and three phases of educational policies aimed at compensating for their educational disadvantages. Discusses the disappointing outcomes of compensatory education, bilingual education, intercultural education, and preschool and early school programs, and describes the government's radical new approach involving decentralization, deregulation, and local autonomy.
  • Disabled Learners in South Asia: Lessons from the Past for Educational Exporters
    This paper examines the cultural traditions of South Asia, especially India and Pakistan, regarding the education of children with special needs. This valuable cultural heritage has been largely ignored in the inflow of western educational ideas and the professionalization of special education, especially in the late 19th century.
  • Centering Culture: Teaching for Critical Sexual Literacy Using the Sexual Diversity Wheel
    Explicates the concept of sexual literacy within the context of four curricular models for multicultural sexuality education: tolerance, diversity, difference, and "differance." Presents the Sexual Diversity Wheel as a tool to facilitate inquiry into the multiple cross-cultural constructions and valuations of gender and sexuality. Illustrates with fieldwork from the Philippines.
  • Teacher Education's Responsibility to Address Diversity Issues: Enhancing Institutional Capacity
    Preservice teachers must be prepared to address substantial student diversity and to educate all students to higher levels of understanding and competence. Many teacher educators are not competent to prepare new teachers in this area.
  • Using the New Racial Categories in the 2000 Census: A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000
    This report addresses issues that data users will face in using, interpreting, and presenting new data on race from the 2000 census, which allowed multiple racial responses. Changing how the census collects data on race is not new.
  • Pacific Resources for Education and Learning Fact Sheet.
    Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL) is a nonprofit corporation that serves schools in 10 Pacific island political entities, whose affiliation with the United States ranges from statehood to free association. PREL's main office is in Honolulu, Hawaii, with service centers in American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; the Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, and Yap); Guam; the Republic of the Marshall Islands; and the Republic of Palau.
  • Preserving Home Languages and Cultures in the Classroom: Challenges and Opportunities
    Decades of research document the powerful academic and socio-affective benefits of a strong home language base and affirmation of home language and culture as a valuable resource. This article explores the implicit challenges, daily realities, opportunities, and practical implications of incorporating language and culture into classrooms as they relate to culturally and linguistically diverse language learners.
  • What the Russian School Ought to Be Like
    Asserts that Russian society and Russian schools are going through a profound crisis. Maintains that the best approach to solving social and educational problems is to restore and develop national principles and group cohesion.
  • Connections '97. Proceedings of a Faculty Conference (3rd, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, May 1997)
    This proceedings contains 17 papers presented at the third annual faculty conference at the University of Victoria (British Columbia, Canada). Papers cover a wide variety of disciplines and topics, including student teaching, athletics, researcher-teacher collaboration, hands-on science instruction, violence prevention, youth violence, counseling, physical education, career development, Native American art and culture, culturally relevant science instruction, mathematics instruction, student evaluation, art education, and philosophy of knowledge.