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Racial Bias

  • "Advances in Special Education: Multicultural Education for Learners with Exceptionalities," edited by Festus E. Obiakor, John O. Schwenn, and Anthony F. Rotatori. Book Review
    Notes that Obiakor et al's edited volume places special education within a cultural framework and identifies general and special education institutional practices that result in cultural diversity being recast as an individual deficit. Argues that the book fails to deal sufficiently with intersections of race, culture, and class that are critical for understanding special education within a multicultural framework.
  • "I've Really Learned a Lot, But...": Cross-cultural Understanding and Teacher Education in a Racist Society
    Describes a cross-cultural course offered by the Faculty of Education at the University of Regina (Saskatchewan, Canada) to develop preservice teachers' understanding of aboriginal cultures, taking data from instructors' experiences and student narratives. The paper discusses the lack of understanding in white preservice teachers' views of self and others and the implications for teacher education in a racist society.
  • "Reverse Racism": Students' Response to Equity Programs
    With reference to class discussions of racism and equity, this article explores how white college and university students conceptualize racism and perceive equity programs as affecting their career opportunities. It concludes that through class discussions, educators can help students understand equity programs as a benefit to all students.
  • A Crisis in Graduate Studies
    Argues that Aboriginal graduate students are creating a crisis for faculties of education. The knowledge needed to supervise them as they produce theses is not available.
  • A Future for Multi-Ethnic Scotland: Evaluating the Parekh Report
    Analyzes propaganda methods used by radical opponents of the Parekh report, The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain, connecting the forms of challenge developed to the Macpherson report on the findings of the Stephen Lawrence Inquiry. Results suggest that the ideological and intellectual struggle between antiracists and radical conservatives is sharpening, especially around the concept of institutional racism.
  • A Response to Rose Hernandez Sheets
    Responds to an essay that examined the role of whites in multicultural education and reviewed three books on the subject, agreeing with the essay's assertion that having a positive white racial identity does not an antiracist educator make; questioning the essay's interpretation of the term marginalization regarding diverse students; and agreeing that whites must take the responsibility for educating themselves about people of color. (SM).
  • Advancing the Field or Taking Centre Stage: The White Movement in Multicultural Education
    Examines the white movement within multicultural education, reviewing three representative books: "We Can't Teach What We Don't Know: White Teachers, Multiracial Schools"; "Race and Culture in the Classroom: Teaching and Learning Through Multicultural Education"; and "Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring the Racial Identity of White Teachers." Suggests that this current movement to further empower whites may not be the solution. (SM).
  • Anti-Bias Teaching To Address Cultural Diversity
    Multiculturalism must be integrated into classrooms and the curriculum, and it must be all-encompassing, taught through formal lessons and modeled and demonstrated at all times. Describes how teachers can create an anti-bias curriculum and promote a multicultural or anti-bias classroom.
  • Applying Multiculturalism to a High School American Literature Course: Changing Lenses and Crossing Borders
    Describes a nine-week, secondary-school, language arts unit on the American dream with an emphasis on multicultural issues, particularly as they concern those students who are apathetic about or resistant to the multicultural program. Reviews specific lesson approaches to "The Great Gatsby," "Baseball in April," "Justin and the Best Biscuits in the World," and other works.
  • Assessing Preservice Teachers' Zones of Concern and Comfort with Multicultural Education
    Examined preservice teachers' concerns and comfort with concepts and practices advocated as approaches to multicultural education. Data from surveys conducted at different points throughout a cultural-awareness course indicated that students believed in the need for multicultural education but differed greatly regarding choices for preferred approaches to multicultural education.
  • Assessing the Issues of Multiracial Students on College Campuses
    This preliminary study focuses on multiracial college students' attitudes regarding the challenges they experience on campus. Results highlight counseling issues that affect multiracial college students and how college counselors' perceptions of diversity need to be broadened to accommodate the rapidly growing multiracial and multiethnic student population.
  • Beyond Race Awareness: White Racial Identity and Multicultural Teaching
    Interviews examined whether white students' shifts in thinking about themselves as racial beings and about systems of oppression during a multicultural education course were evident in later teaching practice. Though students initially resisted learning about their own racism, they eventually became more willing to take some responsibility for racism.
  • Breaking Racial Stereotypes by Reconstructing Multicultural Education
    Racial stereotypes and discrimination have destroyed many bright futures by limiting the possibilities of people of color in America. Describes two initiatives that can be implemented in schools in order to help destroy negative images of race and reconstruct a more healthy foundation to build on: multiculturalism across the curriculum and multicultural awareness inservices for teachers.
  • Celebrating Racial Diversity
    This book is a teacher's guide to lessons on racism and multicultural education for students in preschool through grade 12. The emphasis is on the Catholic tradition, and suggestions are given for using the manual to support a religious education program.
  • Charting the Development of Multi-Ethnic Britain
    Provides a broad history of the contribution of people of Asian origin, particularly Indian origin, to the development of the United Kingdom, discussing the racial bias they have historically faced in the country's educational, social, and employment systems. A timeline of the Indian presence in Great Britain from 1688-1999 is presented.
  • Children of Mixed Race--No Longer Invisible
    Schools often ignore the existence and special concerns of multiracial and multiethnic students, whose numbers are increasing faster than those of monoracial children. Serving these students requires changing teacher education, recording heritage sensitively, assessing formal and informal curricula, revising ethnic and racial celebrations, addressing harassment, and promoting anti-bias activities.
  • Citizenship, Democracy and Political Literacy
    Draws on the Crick Report, Education for Citizenship and the Teaching of Democracy in Schools, to examine citizenship, democracy, and political literacy, considering the report's potential as a framework for promoting racial equality in European schools. Discusses the following issues: racism and the education system; racism, democracy, and citizenship education; and human rights and political literacy.
  • Class, Cultism, and Multiculturalism
    Globalization has hurt both developed and developing countries. Capitalism's relations of exploitation can hurt people of color in disabling ways.
  • Commentary on "Laying Down the Sword."
    Discusses a book which describes through poetry, essays, and personal life reflections on how it was to grow up as a Black American. Offers information on the author, an educational administrator and 30-year veteran of the music and recording industry; presents the book's introduction; and includes comments about the book by two educational administrators.
  • Commitment to Change: The Council on Interracial Books for Children and the World of Children's Books
    The Council on Interracial Books for Children (CIBC), founded in 1965, was formed to promote and develop children's literature that adequately reflects a multiracial society and to effect change in media portrayal of minorities. Past critiques by CIBC of "The Cay" (Theodore Taylor) and "To Kill a Mockingbird" (Harper Lee) are highlighted.
  • Conceptualizing a Case of Indirect Racism Using the White Racial Identity Development Model
    Describes how counselors might use a model of White racial identity development to conceptualize and treat a White client who has experienced racism directed toward his ethnic minority friend. Specific attention is paid to both the client's and the counselor's White racial statuses and how these interact within the counseling process.
  • Confronting Prejudice and Racism during Multicultural Training
    This book examines multicultural training program components to assess how trainees adopt, digest, or resist multicultural principles and practices.
  • Constructing an Image of a White Teacher
    To confront racial issues in their classrooms, white student teachers reflected on their identities as white teachers and their understandings of multiculturalism. By confronting their identities and challenging the meaning of being white teachers, they could better pursue teaching practices to alter the way white students are educated about themselves and about multicultural education.
  • Constructing Conceptions of Multicultural Teaching: Preservice Teachers' Life Experiences and Teacher Education
    Addresses the need for greater understanding of the complex, contradictory nature of preservice teachers' life experiences as they interact with a multicultural, social reconstructionist teacher education course. The paper describes a study of the course and portrays two students' prior experiences that influenced their motivations to teach multiculturally.
  • Countering Prejudice against American Indians and Alaska Natives through Antibias Curriculum and Instruction. ERIC Digest
    Teaching from an antibias perspective means going beyond conventional multicultural education and introducing students to a working concept of diversity that challenges social stereotypes and discrimination. This digest describes current inadequacies in teaching about Native Americans, suggests ways to avoid common pitfalls, and provides guidelines for detecting anti-Indian bias in instructional materials.
  • Critical Multiculturalism and Racism in Children's Literature
    Multicultural literature can help elementary students learn about cultural differences and racial bias and examine their prejudices and stereotypes. Critiques five children's books that emphasize the African American experience.
  • Cultural Reciprocity: Exploring the Impacts of Cross-Cultural Instruction on Professorial Self-Reflection
    Cultural reciprocity refers to the dynamic and material exchange of knowledge, values, and perspectives between two or more individuals of different cultural (e.g., racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, religious) backgrounds. In this paper, cultural reciprocity is discussed as it pertains to professors of education and their students, based on the history of their interactions and diversity of experiences in cross-cultural settings.
  • Cultural Stereotypes and Preservice Education: Moving Beyond Our Biases
    Examines one teacher's attempt to bring positive changes in students' perceptions about people from cultures other than their own. Highlights an education course that helped students change their stereotyped perceptions of an Asian instructor and her culture and their superficial understanding of multicultural education.
  • Distinctive Members: The Effects of Solo Arrangements on Evaluations of Solos and Similar Others
    Investigates the effect of group composition on judgments of African Americans. White male and female college students (N=84) responded to photographic slides of female work groups containing altered racial compositions.
  • Do Multicultural Education and Diversity Appreciation Training Reduce Prejudice among Counseling Trainees?
    A review of the research literature evaluating the effectiveness of multicultural education and diversity appreciation training (ME/DAT) was conducted to determine if there was support for the notion that ME/DAT effects reductions in prejudice among mental health counselor trainees. Results of the review produced four major conclusions.
  • Education in Black and White: How Kids Learn Racism--And How Schools Can Help Them Unlearn It
    Before educators can help children unlearn racial prejudice, they should realize that children develop societal stereotypes and biases by age 3 or 4. A Seattle multiculturalism expert suggests that schools create an overall cooperative atmosphere, sponsor cross-school events that bring kids from different backgrounds together, and ensure equal status for students of all races.
  • Expectations Great and Small: The Mental Maps of Teachers and Systems
    Discusses how high and low expectations are communicated to British students both directly by what teachers say and indirectly through the systems and processes through which teachers work. Examines racial and social biases and notes that expectations can be self-fulfilling prophesies.
  • Experiences and Beliefs as Predictors of Ethnic Identity and Intergroup Relations
    Factors affecting ethnic identity and other group orientation were assessed in 115 college students from 5 ethnic groups. Ethnic group self-identification, negative and positive interracial experiences, perceptions of racial bias, social support, just-world beliefs, and psychological distress were each associated with various components of ethnic identity and are discussed within a counseling perspective.
  • Experiencing Literacy In and Out of School: Case Studies of Two American Indian Youths
    Focuses on the role of multiple literacies in the lives of Lakota and Dakota (Sioux) young adolescents who lived and attended school in a predominantly White, rural, upper Midwest community. Explores ways they constructed meaning through music, dance, and art.
  • Eyes on Education: A Proposal for East Side Union High Schools.
    This paper presents information from surveys of 1,028 diverse high school students in one California district about inequalities they experienced and their thoughts regarding such issues. While 83 percent of students are students of color, 38 percent of teachers are teachers of color.
  • Feeling, Experiencing and Consciousing: Diversity in the College Classroom
    Recent reports identify minority college students' tendency to segregate themselves and opt out of mainstream campus activities. This article describes a redesigned cultural diversity teaching model that sensitizes instructors to their own ethnic/racial preconceptions and helps students acknowledge their own racial biases, identify stereotypical reactions, engage in honest discussion about differences, and appreciate other groups' societal contributions.
  • From Boarding Schools to the Multicultural Classroom: The Intercultural Politics of Education, Assimilation, and American Indians
    Examines American Indian perspectives about public education in the United States, discussing practices that still work to eradicate all traces of their resident cultures. Focuses on the politics of intercultural communication in the academy via a historical and contemporary analysis of American Indians as subjects, objects, and practitioners in the U.S.
  • From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education
    Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students.
  • Hey Pachuco! "That Zoot Suit Can Cause a Riot."
    Popular music and films can become vehicles in the study of racial prejudices and stereotypes and provide a framework for understanding the popular opinions of a particular era. At the College of Staten Island, City University of New York, a course incorporates popular music and videos into the study of historical accounts of the 20th century focusing on racial stereotypes.
  • Identity Formation and the Processes of "Othering": Unraveling Sexual Threads
    Discusses the extent to which the processes of "othering" (marking and naming those considered different from oneself) fall into the physical and sexual realm. The paper examines three studies, highlighting the extent to which othering is sexual, naming and exploring what it means for current school practice in multicultural environments.
  • In the Process of Becoming Multicultural: Reflections of a First Year Teacher
    Discusses how although the author knew she only had meager training in teaching multicultural literature, she was committed to teaching it because she believes in its importance and influence on impressionable minds. Describes an incident where she was confronted with an anonymous note criticizing her teaching of African American Literature.
  • Keeping It Real: Teaching and Learning about Culture, Literacy, and Respect
    Describes one teacher education program designed to broaden students' thinking about the influences of culture in society, and teaching and learning about literacy. Offers an "unromanticized glimpse" into the lives of teacher education students as they struggle to come to terms with their transformation as literacy educators preparing to teach literacy in multiracial, multiethnic, multilingual classrooms of the 21st century.
  • Learning To Be a Citizen in the Global Age
    Discusses how to teach students to be citizens in today's diverse world, examining current key issues and explaining the varying forms of citizenship and variables associated with access to them. Stresses the need to integrate education for the diverse range of citizen learning models in order to abolish social discrimination forever.
  • Lessons Learned: Exploring Past Cultural Experiences of the Chicano/Mexican American Ambience To Strengthen Contemporary Multicultural Education
    Explored the use of phenomenology research to explore lessons learned and their potential for inclusion in multicultural education, focusing on the Chicano/Mexicano experience as farmworkers in northern Colorado. Interview data indicated that respondents maintained a high context and connection with their primary culture.
  • Lies and Truths in the Future of Britain
    Outlines three educational implications of the report, "The Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain": relevance of discussions regarding identity and belonging for citizenship education; stress on gathering and using sound data and suggestions that the education system's failure to collect such data is a prime example of institutional racism; and the argument that the OFSTED inspection system needs radical overhaul. (SM).
  • Literacies of Inclusion: Feminism, Multiculturalism, and Youth
    Feminist and multicultural practices in public education can help achieve cultural inclusiveness. The paper examines multiple literacies and literacy learning in culturally diverse and gender fair schools, suggesting whole language programs, reader-response criticism, and feminism to expand the educational canon and ensure a public education representing the politics of inclusion.
  • Looking at the Evidence More Carefully: Achieving the Ideal?
    Schools could make a major contribution toward a racist-free society by stressing more emphatically the need for teachers and students to critically examine all the evidence before making judgements or taking action. By instilling into children a basic set of rules enabling them to make appropriate judgements, teachers can help people rationally defend their beliefs, opinions, and behaviors.
  • Making Our Mark: Defining "Self" in a Multicultural World
    Suggests that the classroom is an ideal place to "struggle to be together in our differences," as students begin to formulate their definitions of self and others, and need to learn to deal with differing attitudes and opinions. Describes experiences in the author's class as discussion about immigration in the United States blazed into a discussion about race.
  • Multicultural Citizenship
    Great Britain's citizenship education helps prepare students for informed and responsible citizenship in a multicultural society. Social science teachers and researchers should consider factors that epitomize multiethnic Britain today as they teach.
  • Multicultural Counseling Competencies as Tools to Address Oppression and Racism
    The background, rationale, and framework of the multicultural competencies documents are discussed. Central concepts include development of awareness of personal assumptions, values, and biases; understanding the worldview of the culturally different client; and developing appropriate intervention strategies and techniques.
  • Multicultural Education: A Caring-Centered, Reflective Approach
    This book for teachers presents stories and real-life examples that illustrate key concepts of culture, discrimination, and social justice and how they can affect diverse classrooms. It is written in a conversational style within a caring-centered framework, and it discusses culture's role in the learning process and in students' identity development.
  • Multicultural Teacher Education for the 21st Century
    Discusses multicultural preservice teacher education, recommending that preservice programs be more deliberate about preparing white Americans for teaching diverse students because of the increasing division between white teachers and minority students. The paper examines preservice teachers' fear of diversity and resistance to dealing with race and racism, proposing a two-part program for preparing teachers to work with diverse students.
  • Multicultural Teaching: African-American Faculty Classroom Teaching Experiences in Predominantly White Colleges and Universities
    Explored classroom teaching challenges faced by African American faculty at a predominantly white college. Focus group interviews with black faculty indicated that the teachers believed white students felt their standards were too high and did not match white professors' expectations.
  • Multiculturalism as Jagged Walking
    Argues that teacher educators must find ways to move beyond student teacher resistance to multiculturalism so that future teachers are prepared to understand and teach diverse students, proposing a model that examines the multidimensionalities of place and memory as they shape multicultural identities, discussing social bias in education in the American south, and examining memory as ambiguity, complexity and history. (SM).
  • Multiculturalism, Diversity, and African American College Students: Receptive, Yet Skeptical?
    Hypothesized that African American college students with higher racial self-esteem would be more open to diversity and multiculturalism than students with lower racial self-esteem. Surveys indicated that most students valued diversity-oriented courses, though most also believed that diversity courses were biased against African Americans.
  • Multiculturally Challenged
    Voices the lament and the anger of a lone black teacher in an all-white school district in Wyoming trying to teach the "other" while simultaneously representing the "other." (SR).
  • Multimedia Pedagogy for the New Millennium
    Describes two multimedia and CD-ROM projects: The Shoah Visual History project; and the University of California Los Angeles' interactive educational CD-ROM, "Executive Order 9066: The Incarceration of Japanese Americans During World War II." Argues that these powerful teaching tools help students better understand historical events, involve students in historical research, teach tolerance, and promote antiracist curricula. (SR).
  • Our Souls To Keep: From Surface to Deep in Literary Representations Regarding Race
    Presents literary reviews that reveal deeper issues to consider when exploring beyond the surface and reflecting on the racial schisms pervading the United States. The literature examines: a conference on the relationship of education and African American self-concept; the role of black mothers in raising their sons; slave novels; a critical review of speaking; and the Ebonics debate in education.
  • Pedagogy of Possibilities: Teaching about Racism in Multicultural Counseling Courses
    Teaching about diversity or multiculturalism in counselor education programs is a challenge. Racism as a topic is an emotionally charged subject.
  • Power and Contact: Transcending Authority in the Classroom
    One of the prerequisites or unavoidable results of multiculturalism is that the classroom becomes what Mary Louise Pratt calls a "contact zone." Within the spectrum of student political approaches is the student who is openly belligerent to the multicultural agenda and the student who is "converted" or will simply give the teacher what he/she wants.
  • Power and Contact: Transcending Authority in the Classroom
    One of the prerequisites or unavoidable results of multiculturalism is that the classroom becomes what Mary Louise Pratt calls a "contact zone." But how does the teacher keep discussion productive without taking sides? How does the teacher abdicate enough authority to diminish the asymmetricality but not so much that the class becomes a shapeless mass?.
  • Prejudice and Pride: Japanese Americans in the Young Adult Novels of Yoshiko Uchida
    Discusses five books for young adults by author Yoshiko Uchida. Notes that these books, accessible to children in grades 5 and above, describe the prejudice against Japanese Americans, internment camps, and upheaval, sorrow, and anger spawned by the American government's racist actions.
  • Preparing English Teachers To Teach Diverse Student Populations: Beliefs, Challenges, Proposals for Change
    Argues a need for in-depth consideration of principles and practices to prepare teachers for classrooms they will face in the future. Notes problems created by the disparity between increasing student diversity and their overwhelmingly white, female English/language arts teachers.
  • Presenting the Wounded Knee Massacre in Books for Children: A Review Essay on Neil Waldman's "Wounded Knee."
    Reviews a book on the 1890 massacre at Wounded Knee, suggesting that the author puts a white, European bias on the actual events, which encourages non-Indian young readers to think in limited ways about Indian people and keeps them from identifying with Indian people. (SM).
  • Promising Practices
    Examines selected programs and methodologies in multicultural education designed to foster greater understanding of diverse cultures and lessen racial, class, and gender biases. Highlighted programs include a doctoral program in multicultural education and a staff development program for dealing with workplace diversity.
  • QCA and the Politics of Multicultural Education
    Suggests that Britain's QCA (Qualifications and Curriculum Authority) has not taken responsibility for an anti-racist approach to curriculum or pedagogy. Instead, this has been left to individuals and local authorities.
  • Race in the College Classroom: Pedagogy and Politics
    This collection of essays by college instructors who teach in the humanities, social sciences, science, and education, addresses the challenges faced by professors who believe that teaching responsibly requires an honest examination of race.
  • Race in the College Classroom: Pedagogy and Politics
    This collection of essays by college instructors who teach in the humanities, social sciences, science, and education, addresses the challenges faced by professors who believe that teaching responsibly requires an honest examination of race.
  • Racism Attitudes, White Racial Identity Attitudes, and Multicultural Counseling Competence in School Counselor Trainees
    Investigates the contributions of prior multicultural training, racism attitudes, and White racial identity attitudes to self-reported multicultural counseling competence in 99 school counselor trainees. Results revealed that racism attitudes and White racial identity attitudes together contributed to significant variance in self-perceived multicultural counseling competence.
  • Racism, Reconstructed Multiculturalism and Antiracist Education
    Offers a reformulation of the concept of racism that incorporates both biological and cultural elements, but also includes seemingly positively evaluated characteristics in addition to more obvious negative ones. Notes problems with concepts of "reconstructed multiculturalism" and the associated liberal-pluralist conception of "the unity of the nation." (DSK).
  • Racism. IDRA Focus.
    This theme issue includes four articles on racism in colleges and public schools and on strategies to build ethnic and racial tolerance.
  • Racism. IDRA Focus.
    This theme issue includes four articles on racism in colleges and public schools and on strategies to build ethnic and racial tolerance. "Affirmative Action: Not a Thing of the Past" (Linda Cantu) reviews the history of affirmative action and its positive effects on Hispanic and Black enrollment in higher education, discusses current efforts to dismantle affirmative action, and counters claims of reverse discrimination against White males.
  • Re-establishing Antiracist Education: A Response to Short and Carrington
    Responds to the article "Reconstructing Multicultural Education: a Response to Mike Cole" in which Cole defends his views of antiracist education and the role of cultural racism, the teaching of controversial aspects of other cultures, reconstructed multiculturalism as opposed to student misconceptions, and nationalism within the context of Britishness. (CMK).
  • Reconstructing Multicultural Education: A Response to Mike Cole
    Refutes Mike Cole's article "Racism, Reconstructed Multiculturalism and Antiracist Education" by addressing five main topics: (1) the new racism as a means to changing multicultural education; (2) representation of antiracist educators; (3) advice to teachers of controversial aspects of other cultures; (4) identifying students' misconceptions before imparting new knowledge; and (5) nationalism. (CMK).
  • Redefining Multicultural Education: A Humanitarian Perspective
    Multicultural education should not be used for politically motivated purposes such as combating racism, developing cultural identity, or ending poverty and inequality. It should embody universal humanity, morality, and freedom, uniting people but maintaining their uniqueness and individuality.
  • Reducing Prejudice and Stereotyping in Schools. Multicultural Education Series
    More than 500 studies of intergroup relations are reviewed to develop recommendations to help educators choose effective programs to reduce racial prejudice and stereotyping in their schools.
  • Reducing Racism in Schools: Moving beyond Rhetoric
    Addresses the problems of racism in schools and reviews the historical and contemporary context of the policies and programs to reduce it. Discusses obstacles and challenges to implementing effective antiracist policies and programs.
  • Reflections on the "White Movement" in Multicultural Education
    Responds to an essay that examined the role of whites in multicultural education and reviewed three books, critiquing five of the essay's assumptions (e.g., there is a white movement in multicultural education, attention to whites' role in multicultural education is very recent, and the focus on white identity development in multicultural education signals a shift away from equity pedagogy). (SM).
  • Research, Writing, and Racial Identity: Cross-Disciplinary Connections for Multicultural Education
    Examined how white students in an undergraduate multicultural education course experienced difficult, emotional content about racism. Analysis of samples of students' reflective writing indicated that the coursework influenced students' racial identities.
  • Response to Rosa Hernandez Sheets' Review of "Race and Culture."
    Responds to an essay that examined the role of whites in multicultural education, reviewed three books, and discussed the role of racial/cultural identity in teaching and learning. Notes that the essay is sometimes at odds with facts found in one of the books it reviews, suggesting that the essay helps perpetuate the inadequacy of white teachers teaching diverse students.
  • Rethinking Racism and Assimilation
    Assimilation and multiculturalism are seen as two opposing ideas. A balance between cultural similarities and differences is needed.
  • Rolling Up Our Sleeves in Social Justice Research: A Collaborative Study of School-Based Coalitions
    This study examined the shared experiences of student and teacher activists in light of current theoretical and political contexts of interest to social justice activists. The study involved collaborative in-depth interviews with and observations of seven student and four teacher activists in Alberta, Canada.
  • School Inspection and Racial Justice: Challenges Facing OFSTED and Schools
    Describes research that examined how Great Britain's Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED) was fulfilling its responsibilities to raise standards by preventing and addressing racism in schools and how inspection framework requirements were reflected in inspection reports. Results confirmed that racial equality was not a key concern within OFSTED.
  • Seeking Common Ground. In-Service
    The former superintendent of the Piscataway (New Jersey) Township Schools describes the hows and whys of diversity workshops for school-district employees. (LMI).
  • Seeking Ethnocultural Equity through Teacher Education: Reforming University Preservice Programs
    Argues that Canadian schools of education must address social justice issues of ethnicity, culture, and racism; model equitable practices in teacher education programs; and promote equity for all students in public schools. Reviews current debate on multicultural and antiracist education, challenges in pursuing equity in education, and promising preservice programs providing specific direction for reform.
  • Sexism Exposed: Films about Gender Identity, Discrimination, and Change
    Reviews documentary and ethnographic films that examine gender-related issues, summarizing each film and analyzing its relevance to multicultural and social justice education. The films are: "The Fairer Sex?"; "Macho, 2000"; "The Pill"; "Step by Step: Building a Feminist Movement"; "I am a Man"; "The Body Beautiful"; and "Nobody Knows My Name." (SM).
  • Shattering the Denial: Protocols for the Classroom and Beyond
    This book examines how to address and reduce racist practices in the schools, featuring an antiracist education teacher study that provided baseline figures on teacher perceptions of racism and demonstrated how teachers can successfully implement antiracist concepts in their classrooms.
  • Shifting Identities in Private Education: Reconstructing Race at/in the Cultural Center
    Examines social constructs of white racial identity among adolescent girls attending a largely white, elite, private, single-sex high school. Students' voices illustrate how liberal discourses position youth and how white youth actively remake themselves in relation to prevailing meanings and practices institutionalized in private schools.
  • Sociocultural Issues in Education: Implications for Teachers
    Exclusion, hatred, and injustice have caused much pain in U.S. society.
  • Speaking the Unpleasant. The Politics of (non)Engagement in the Multicultural Education Terrain. SUNY Series, The Social Context of Education
    This book addresses the clashing, controversial ideological and ontological postures that emanate when multicultural education issues are the sum and substance for engagement by learners in various educational settings.
  • Spear Fishing in Wisconsin: Multicultural Education as Symbolic Violence
    Describes how multicultural teacher education can preserve familiar institutional and ideological mechanisms that validate social inequalities, analyzing student discourse collected during activities concerning recent conflict between Native American groups and groups opposed to the exercise of their treaty rights to fish on nonreservation lakes. Discusses differences between positions taken by state university students and liberal arts college students.
  • Structured Racism, Sexism, and Elitism: A Hound That "Sure Can Hunt" (The Chronicity of Oppression)
    The author recounts personal experiences with socio-politically structured racism, especially in education and religion; and the growth gained in confronting this nemesis. A career ranging from pastor to counselor to counselor educator has brought understanding of the link between religion, education, and counseling and a commitment to multicultural counseling.
  • Suburban Bigotry: A Descent into Racism & Struggle for Redemption
    One New Jersey school district responded to racism and educational bias by implementing prejudice reduction initiatives. The community had been all white until the mid-1990s, when it became one-third minority.
  • Taking It Personally: Racism in the Classroom from Kindergarten to College. Teaching and Learning Social Justice Series
    This book chronicles two teachers and their own educational progress in antiracist education. When one, a female African American elementary school teacher, accepted an invitation from the other, a White college professor, to speak to her graduate preservice teacher education class (a required multicultural education course), an explosive classroom incident occurred.
  • The Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain: A Summary of Some of the Main Principles and Recommendations
    Discusses the main principles and recommendations of the Commission on the Future of Multi-Ethnic Britain, an independent think-tank devoted to promoting racial justice in Britain. Some of the tasks identified for Great Britain are: rethinking the national story and national identity; addressing and removing all forms of racism; reducing economic inequalities; and building a pluralistic human rights culture.
  • The Diversification of Psychology. A Multicultural Revolution
    Presents trends and recommendations arising from the continuing diversification of psychology, highlighting five multicultural themes: diversification of the United States; facilitating difficult dialogues on race, gender, and sexual orientation; spirituality as a basic dimension of the human condition; the invisibility of monoculturalism and whiteness; and teaching multiculturalism and diversity. The challenge of developing a multicultural psychology is discussed.
  • The Formative Evaluation of Years 1 and 2 of a Pilot Multicultural/Antiracist Educational Leadership Program
    This paper describes the evaluation approach, techniques, and instruments adopted during the first 2 years of a 3-year multicultural/antiracist educational leadership program in 4 Canadian provinces involving approximately 200 secondary students. The formative evaluation of these two years was aimed at program achievement.
  • The One-Minute Paper: Enhancing Discussion in a Multicultural Seminar
    The teacher of a college seminar on education in contemporary American society, addressing sensitive personal and political concepts, used one-minute essays to "take the pulse" of the class daily. Daily summaries of essay content provided students with evidence of the teacher's commitment to monitoring the process, added a level of discourse, and provided feedback about individual and collective direction.
  • The Other Canadian "Mosaic": "Race" Equity Education in Ontario and British Columbia
    Examines the implementation of Canadian federal policy on multicultural and antiracist education in Ontario and British Columbia. Focuses on the perspectives of 42 "active players" in the field of race equity education, including teachers, faculty, administrators, and activists.
  • The Pit Boss: A New Native American Stereotype?
    Stresses the importance of U.S. history textbooks containing information that is accurate, realistic, and comprehensive, noting that while there are increased portrayals of Native Americans in today's history textbooks, portraying them in a stereotypical manner that suggests a single type of Indian culture is inappropriate and may affect students' attitudes toward Native Americans or their own self-esteem.
  • The Power of Performance in Multicultural Curricula. "Screams of Tyranny, Cries of Hope," a Script and Workshop Project for High School Students
    Describes a play written for performance by high school students entitled, "Screams of Tyranny, Cries of Hope," that is explicitly for use in encouraging multicultural acceptance. The play features performative, role playing and interpretation workshops that include both students and educators.
  • The Relationships between Situated Cognition and Rural Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Understanding of Diversity
    A study examined the influence of situated knowledge embedded in 17 rural preservice teachers' autobiographies on their perspectives on diversity and future classroom practices. Four themes emerged in interviews: situative cognition in rural contexts; cultural groups being together but existing apart; understanding group similarities and differences; and desire to teach in a small rural school.
  • Theorizing Interracial Families and Hybrid Identity: An Australian Perspective
    Uses narratives from research on interethnic Australian families to explore how interracial families are sites for development and articulation of hybrid identity, examining the significance of place, locality, and situated racial practice in constructing identity and arguing (using Hall's concepts of New Times and hybridity) that interracial subjects are of concern in postcolonial and postindustrial nation states and economics. (SM).
  • Through Students' Eyes. Combating Racism in United States Schools
    Racism has not been eradicated in U.S. schools, even though many educators do not view it as a major deterrent to the learning of minority students.
  • Two Important New Documents Reviewed: OFSTED and TTA
    Reviews the OFSTED document, "Educational Inequality: Mapping Race, Class and Gender. A Synthesis of Research Evidence," (which examines the persistent inequality between the main ethnic populations within English schools) and the Teacher Training Agency document, "Raising the Attainment of Minority Ethnic Pupils: Guidance and Resource Materials for Providers of Initial Teacher Training" (which focuses on racial equality and teacher training).
  • Using Multicultural Resources for Teachers To Combat Racial Prejudice in the Classroom
    Presents questions that will assist early childhood teachers in evaluating their own views and behaviors toward various ethnic groups. Provides resources for teachers to educate themselves, parents, and students.
  • W(R)i(t/d)ing on the Border: Reading our Borderscape
    Provides a counter story focusing on the U.S./Mexico border that is a borderscape requiring active and tacit engagements and uses the genre of Critical Race Theory in which the experiential and intrinsic complexity of story knowledge depends on the Other's lived experiences. Attempts to unmask the hegemony of social injustices.
  • White Teachers/Black Schools; Stories from Apartheid South Africa
    Interviewed white teachers in apartheid-era South Africa who taught in segregated schools for black students, all of whom believed that they were part of the fight against apartheid. Though they taught in segregated schools, they worked to facilitate students' political awareness and voice.
  • Who Belongs Here? Portraying American Identity in Children's Picture Books
    Provides examples of children's literature that can be used to begin dialogs on issues of similarities, differences, prejudice, exclusion and inclusion, violence, and social justice. Picture books chosen for broad appeal and multiple uses, even with older students, are described.
  • Women of Color: Perspectives within the Profession
    To effectively interact with their students, leaders and teachers in sport and physical activity must be familiar with their students' cultural backgrounds. This collection of articles discusses how women of color deal with and have been affected by their racial and ethnic identities in relationship to physical activity and sport.