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Racial Identification

  • "The Politics of Location": Text As Opposition
    Foregrounds issues of race, ethnicity, and education, and ties together two important issues in teaching basic writing: how social and pedagogical issues in higher education shape possibilities for bicultural students' writings, and how these students can use their developing sense of literacy and their texts to explore identity. Discusses ethnographic research conducted in a writing course, focusing on texts a student wrote.
  • A Response to Rose Hernandez Sheets
    Responds to an essay that examined the role of whites in multicultural education and reviewed three books on the subject, agreeing with the essay's assertion that having a positive white racial identity does not an antiracist educator make; questioning the essay's interpretation of the term marginalization regarding diverse students; and agreeing that whites must take the responsibility for educating themselves about people of color. (SM).
  • Addressing the Needs of Biracial Children: An Issue for Counselors in a Multicultural School Environment
    Focuses on the school counseling concerns of biracial children and the use of developmental school counseling programs as a means of promoting positive self-awareness in biracial students.Also, views developmental counseling programs as a viable vehicle for promoting awareness of and respect for the many factors that differentiate one person from another. (KW).
  • Addressing the Needs of Biracial Children: An Issue for Counselors in a Multicultural School Environment
    Focuses on the school counseling concerns of biracial children and the use of developmental school counseling programs as a means of promoting positive self-awareness in biracial students. Views developmental counseling programs as a viable vehicle for promoting awareness of and respect for the many factors that differentiate one person from another.
  • Advancing the Field or Taking Centre Stage: The White Movement in Multicultural Education
    Examines the white movement within multicultural education, reviewing three representative books: "We Can't Teach What We Don't Know: White Teachers, Multiracial Schools"; "Race and Culture in the Classroom: Teaching and Learning Through Multicultural Education"; and "Making Meaning of Whiteness: Exploring the Racial Identity of White Teachers." Suggests that this current movement to further empower whites may not be the solution. (SM).
  • African American Acculturation and Black Racial Identity: A Preliminary Investigation
    Examines the relationship between acculturation and racial identity among African Americans. One hundred eighty-seven African American students completed the Black Racial Identity Attitude Scale and the African American Acculturation Scale (AAAS).
  • Altering White Racial Identity and Interracial Comfort through Multicultural Training
    The impact of an integrative multicultural training program on the development of white racial identity and interracial comfort was examined. Counseling graduate students participated in the training.
  • American Mixed Race. The Culture of Microdiversity
    This book presents a collection of papers on microdiversity that underscore the reality and scholarship of racial difference within single individuals and groups. The book includes 22 papers in 5 parts.
  • Assessing the Issues of Multiracial Students on College Campuses
    This preliminary study focuses on multiracial college students' attitudes regarding the challenges they experience on campus. Results highlight counseling issues that affect multiracial college students and how college counselors' perceptions of diversity need to be broadened to accommodate the rapidly growing multiracial and multiethnic student population.
  • Between the World and the Village: The Role of Education in Sustaining and Developing an Eritrean Cultural Identity
    The role of education in the development of an Eritrean cultural identity is explored against the background of a review of relevant educational provisions in pluralist societies. Multicultural education in Eritrea offers access to a common culture and also to a variety of specific cultures.
  • Beyond Race Awareness: White Racial Identity and Multicultural Teaching
    Interviews examined whether white students' shifts in thinking about themselves as racial beings and about systems of oppression during a multicultural education course were evident in later teaching practice. Though students initially resisted learning about their own racism, they eventually became more willing to take some responsibility for racism.
  • Changing Selves: Multicultural Education and the Challenge of New Identities
    After introducing identity and discussing how it has been used in multicultural education, the paper notes general challenges to this paradigm and uses data from an ethnographic study of a multiracial South African high school to critique multicultural education's treatment of identity, suggesting alternate theoretical paradigms, research strategies, and pedagogical practices. (SM).
  • Conceptualizing a Case of Indirect Racism Using the White Racial Identity Development Model
    Describes how counselors might use a model of White racial identity development to conceptualize and treat a White client who has experienced racism directed toward his ethnic minority friend. Specific attention is paid to both the client's and the counselor's White racial statuses and how these interact within the counseling process.
  • Constructing an Image of a White Teacher
    To confront racial issues in their classrooms, white student teachers reflected on their identities as white teachers and their understandings of multiculturalism. By confronting their identities and challenging the meaning of being white teachers, they could better pursue teaching practices to alter the way white students are educated about themselves and about multicultural education.
  • Critical Multiculturalism: Rethinking Multicultural and Antiracist Education
    This collection brings together the traditions of commitment to antiracist education and identity-based education. Selections from academic commentators on multicultural education link educational theory and practice in the discussion of culturally pluralist schooling.
  • Deconstructing Whiteness as Part of a Multicultural Educational Framework: From Theory to Practice
    Based on emerging theoretical work on White racial identity, argues that a central problem of multicultural education involves challenging the universalization of Whiteness. Proposes a theoretical framework to advance a multicultural perspective in which the exploration and deconstruction of Whiteness is key.
  • Dismantling White Privilege: Pedagogy, Politics, and Whiteness. Counterpoints: Studies in the Postmodern Theory of Education, Vol. 73
    Challenging the assumption that the study of race focuses only on "people of color," many scholars are investigating the historical and social construction of "Whiteness." This book critically interrogates whiteness across contexts; contends that "marking" Whiteness--illuminating veiled cultural assumptions of Whiteness as the norm--is an important step toward social justice; and links analyses of Whiteness to the discourse of critical pedagogy.
  • Ethnicity and Ethnically "Mixed" Identity in Belize: A Study of Primary School-Age Children
    Nationalism, as taught in Belize schools, is panethnic and multiethnic, but because the increasingly widespread practice of ethnic mixing is not acknowledged, there is a discrepancy between what is taught and the daily life of students. Research results from 161 elementary school children show that the ethnic self-identification of children is often ignored.
  • Ethnicity, Race, and Nationality in Education: A Global Perspective. The Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education Series
    This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity.
  • Experiences and Beliefs as Predictors of Ethnic Identity and Intergroup Relations
    Factors affecting ethnic identity and other group orientation were assessed in 115 college students from 5 ethnic groups. Ethnic group self-identification, negative and positive interracial experiences, perceptions of racial bias, social support, just-world beliefs, and psychological distress were each associated with various components of ethnic identity and are discussed within a counseling perspective.
  • Exploring the Relationships between Racial/Cultural Identity and Ego Identity among African Americans and Mexican Americans
    Relationships between collective identity and ego identity were examined among 229 African American and Mexican American university students. Participants completed scales measuring racial or cultural identity and ego identity.
  • Identity Formation and the Processes of "Othering": Unraveling Sexual Threads
    Discusses the extent to which the processes of "othering" (marking and naming those considered different from oneself) fall into the physical and sexual realm. The paper examines three studies, highlighting the extent to which othering is sexual, naming and exploring what it means for current school practice in multicultural environments.
  • Making and Molding Identity in Schools: Student Narratives on Race, Gender, and Academic Engagement. SUNY Series, Power, Social Identity, and Education
    This book focuses on the relationship between ethnic and racial identity and academic engagement, examining in particular the role that schools and classrooms play in shaping this relationship. It examines the lives of students to ask how they conceptualize and assert their ethnic and racial identities across varied curricular settings.
  • Multicultural Counseling Competencies as Tools to Address Oppression and Racism
    The background, rationale, and framework of the multicultural competencies documents are discussed. Central concepts include development of awareness of personal assumptions, values, and biases; understanding the worldview of the culturally different client; and developing appropriate intervention strategies and techniques.
  • Multiracial Asians: Models of Ethnic Identity
    Expanding the definition of "Asian" to include Amerasians of Latino, African, and Native American origins challenges the Asian American community to deconstruct race and examine the racism inherent even in Asian communities. The multiracial experience continues to expand the dynamic construction of Asian identity.
  • Off White: Readings on Race, Power, and Society
    The contributions in this volume analyze the white racialization process in the context of multiculturalism and examine how racism is established in institutional structures.
  • Pedagogy of Possibilities: Teaching about Racism in Multicultural Counseling Courses
    Teaching about diversity or multiculturalism in counselor education programs is a challenge. Racism as a topic is an emotionally charged subject.
  • Racial Identity, African Self-Consciousness, and Career Decision Making in African American College Women
    Examines racial identity, African self-consciousness, and career decidedness in 212 African-American college women. Comparisons were made between senior and first-year students at a historically Black and a predominantly White university.
  • Racism Attitudes, White Racial Identity Attitudes, and Multicultural Counseling Competence in School Counselor Trainees
    Investigates the contributions of prior multicultural training, racism attitudes, and White racial identity attitudes to self-reported multicultural counseling competence in 99 school counselor trainees. Results revealed that racism attitudes and White racial identity attitudes together contributed to significant variance in self-perceived multicultural counseling competence.
  • Reading "Whiteness" in English Studies
    Considers the role of the "white ground" in English studies at a critical period, the late 1960s and early 1970s, when the discipline, along with the rest of the academy and country, struggled mightily with issues of race. Describes the author's interest in constructing a narrative about the relationships between discourse and identity with students.
  • Reflections on the "White Movement" in Multicultural Education
    Responds to an essay that examined the role of whites in multicultural education and reviewed three books, critiquing five of the essay's assumptions (e.g., there is a white movement in multicultural education, attention to whites' role in multicultural education is very recent, and the focus on white identity development in multicultural education signals a shift away from equity pedagogy). (SM).
  • Reimagining Race in Education: A New Paradigm from Psychology
    Discusses paradigms underlying current approaches to multicultural education, introducing a typology of philosophical assumptions that has been used to classify approaches to multiculturalism in the field of psychology; discussing racial identity theory as an important psychological component of a race-based perspective for understanding race and culture in education; and examining how racial identity affects educational thought and practice. (SM).
  • Relationships among Multicultural Training, Moral Development, and Racial Identity Development of White Counseling Students
    Surveys counselor education students (N=68) using Defining Issues Test and White Racial Identity Scale to determine relationships among multicultural training and moral racial identity development. Results indicated that training could help change modes of information processing about racial attitudes, but may not promote cognitive complexity needed for moral development.
  • Research, Writing, and Racial Identity: Cross-Disciplinary Connections for Multicultural Education
    Examined how white students in an undergraduate multicultural education course experienced difficult, emotional content about racism. Analysis of samples of students' reflective writing indicated that the coursework influenced students' racial identities.
  • Response to Rosa Hernandez Sheets' Review of "Race and Culture."
    Responds to an essay that examined the role of whites in multicultural education, reviewed three books, and discussed the role of racial/cultural identity in teaching and learning. Notes that the essay is sometimes at odds with facts found in one of the books it reviews, suggesting that the essay helps perpetuate the inadequacy of white teachers teaching diverse students.
  • Rethinking Culture in the Pedagogy and Practices of Preservice Teachers
    Examines questions about culture and cultural identity that surfaced as student teachers in their elementary practicum attempted to learn about their students' communities and use culture in the classroom, illustrating how culture can be used in classrooms to frame and limit children and suggesting how to reframe classroom practices and multicultural goals in light of potential problems. (SM).
  • Seeing Themselves through Borrowed Eyes: Asian Americans in Ethnic Ambivalence/Evasion
    Focuses on the second stage of ethnic identity development, Ethnic Ambivalence/Evasion, experienced by Asian Americans through 39 personal narratives. Ethnic Ambivalence/Evasion, one of four identified stages that culminate with ethnic identity incorporation, typically occurs during the years of childhood and adolescence, and so is a stage particularly relevant for counselors and educators.
  • Shifting Identities in Private Education: Reconstructing Race at/in the Cultural Center
    Examines social constructs of white racial identity among adolescent girls attending a largely white, elite, private, single-sex high school. Students' voices illustrate how liberal discourses position youth and how white youth actively remake themselves in relation to prevailing meanings and practices institutionalized in private schools.
  • Supervisee Multicultural Case Conceptualization Ability and Self-Reported Multicultural Competence as Functions of Supervisee Racial Identity and Supervisor Focus
    Tests the hypothesis that supervisees' (N=116) multicultural case conceptualization ability and self-reported multicultural competence are functions of their racial identity and their supervisors' instruction to focus on multicultural issues. Results indicate that supervisees' racial identity was significantly related to self-reported multicultural competence.
  • The Accelerating Change of American Diversity
    Discusses three aspects of changes underlying the "New Multiculturalism": intermarriage, "tipping" of racial and ethnic balances (due to differential birthrates and immigration patterns), and transnational cultures. Educational ramifications include changes in administrative record keeping, evolving student identities, acculturation, intergroup relations, and curriculum.
  • The Identity Development of Multiracial Youth. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 137
    In the past several decades, individuals have been responding more actively to political and personal pressures to identify with a specific group that shares their background. For many people of mixed racial, ethnic, and cultural heritage, making such an identification is complicated.
  • The Multicultural Movement and Its Euphemisms
    Discusses educational implications of the multicultural movement, highlighting: relativism versus anti-relativism; consequences of institutionalizing differences; implications of confusing culture with identity; tensions involved in cultural identification; African Americans as an example of race, class, and education; the neglected variable of social class; black culture versus black identity; subjective culture, self-esteem, and community; and positive approaches to these debates. (SM).
  • The Need for Interracial Storybooks in Effective Multicultural Classrooms
    Discusses the importance of including interracial storybooks in today's diverse classrooms, explaining the benefits of using such literature (e.g., building a sound personal identity for children with mixed ancestors, promoting knowledge and skills for a global society, and developing an appreciation for diversity). Reviews eight books with stories about interracial families for elementary school students.
  • The Relationship between Racial Identity Cluster Profiles and Psychological Distress among African American College Students
    African American college students (N=182) completed the Racial Identity Attitudes Scale. Results from the multivariate categorization scheme revealed five types of empirically derived racial identity attitude profiles.
  • The Relationship between Racial Identity Development and Multicultural Counseling Competency
    Incoming doctoral students (n=65 European Americans; n=22 People of Color) completed a battery of tests considering the relationship between racial identity development and multicultural counseling competency. Analysis determined that more advanced levels of racial identity development generally correlated with higher levels of multicultural counseling competency, greater amounts of prior multicultural training, and higher self-reported ratings of overall counseling competency.
  • The Relationships among Counselor-Trainees' Gender, Cognitive Development, and White Racial Identity: Implications for Counselor Training
    Gender and lowest stage of cognitive development were found to significantly contribute to the variance in lower levels of white racial identity in a study of white counselor trainees (N=82). Significant relationships were not found between the higher stages of cognitive development and higher levels of white racial identity.
  • The Schooling of Multiracial Students. ERIC/CUE Digest, Number 138
    The purpose of this digest is to help educators develop a curriculum for multiracial students that fosters their ability to develop a positive identity and achieve academically. To this end, the digest briefly reviews identity formation in multiracial children and then presents schoolwide and classroom strategies that have been shown to be particularly effective with multiracial students and that also promote all children's understanding of racial issues.
  • Theorizing Interracial Families and Hybrid Identity: An Australian Perspective
    Uses narratives from research on interethnic Australian families to explore how interracial families are sites for development and articulation of hybrid identity, examining the significance of place, locality, and situated racial practice in constructing identity and arguing (using Hall's concepts of New Times and hybridity) that interracial subjects are of concern in postcolonial and postindustrial nation states and economics. (SM).
  • Using the New Racial Categories in the 2000 Census: A KIDS COUNT/PRB Report on Census 2000
    This report addresses issues that data users will face in using, interpreting, and presenting new data on race from the 2000 census, which allowed multiple racial responses. Changing how the census collects data on race is not new.
  • We Can't Teach What We Don't Know: White Teachers, Multiracial Schools. Multicultural Education Series
    This book explores what it means to be a culturally competent white teacher in racially diverse schools. Twenty-five years of a multi- cultural educator's experience is presented to show the changes and growth that must take place.
  • We Can't Teach What We Don't Know: White Teachers, Multiracial Schools. Multicultural Education Series
    This book explores what it means to be a culturally competent white teacher in racially diverse schools. Twenty-five years of a multi- cultural educator's experience is presented to show the changes and growth that must take place.
  • White Mothers of Non-White Children
    Results of nine qualitative interviews with White (Pakeha) mothers of non-White children in New Zealand are provided, as are excerpts from personal narratives of biracial persons. J.
  • Whiteness and White Identity in Multicultural Education
    Reviews two books on white identity in multicultural education, examining trends toward linking white race consciousness to effective multicultural pedagogy (which multicultural proponents either embrace or ignore) and discussing whether this discourse advances the field. Suggests that if these texts are designed for preparing white teachers for diverse students, they do not move multicultural education beyond hope and advocacy.