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Sex Differences

  • A Multicultural Study of University Students' Knowledge of and Attitudes Toward Homosexuality
    This study investigated whether or not a relationship exists between university students' knowledge of and attitudes toward homosexuality. Reports significant results and discusses the implications of findings for educational and counseling practice.
  • A New Instrument to Measure Diversity in the Curriculum
    Gauges inclusion of diversity issues and discussion within journalism and mass communication classes from students' perspectives. Finds instructors at nonaccredited programs scored better on every diversity variable; women instructors were far more likely to bring diversity issues into the classroom; part-time instructors did best on the diversity index; and instructors included more diversity issues in classes with minority enrollment.
  • An Examination of Gender Differences among Teachers in Jamaican Schools
    Examines the history of education in Jamaica, then discusses why there is an absence of male teachers in younger grades. Interviews with teachers and principals from six primary and elementary schools indicate that, similar to educational staff in North America, respondents have stereotyped attitudes regarding the teaching of young children being the realm of women.
  • An Exploratory Study of Counselor Judgments in Multicultural Research
    Archival data were used to explore intake judgments made by 45 counselors about 344 African American and white clients seen at a counseling center during a 2-year period. Counselor gender was significantly associated with ratings of client severity of current condition.
  • An Introduction to Multicultural Counseling
    When client and counselor are from different cultural backgrounds, they tend to view things from disparate perspectives. Though a background in multiculturalism is required for program accreditation, most existing texts limit coverage to ethnicity, without the emphasis of broad concepts such as discrimination and acculturation, or coverage of gender, sexual orientation, or aging issues.
  • Coming to Terms with "Diversity" and "Multiculturalism" in Teacher Education: Learning about Our Students, Changing Our Practice
    Teacher educators addressed negative student responses to a multicultural foundations course by designing an action research study to investigate students' identities, experiences, and beliefs. Analysis of written assignments and focus group discussions uncovered three categories of beliefs about the purposes of schools in relation to cultural diversity.
  • Constructing Multiple Subjectivities in Classroom Literacy Contexts
    Demonstrates ways in which three students in a multi-age, literature-based grade 3/4 classroom constructed and reconstructed their subjectivities based on demands of the social setting. Notes that each student's participation was influenced by gender, social class, ethnicity, and the task.
  • Encouraging and Recruiting Students of Color To Teach
    Examined the impact of the Teaching as a Career Workshop, which stressed the need for minority teachers, on high school students' perceptions about teaching. Participants considered it important for people of color to become teachers and believed the workshop influenced them to select teaching careers.
  • Focus on Human Rights
    Maintains that educators have been at the forefront in the quest for equal opportunity. Asserts, however, that there is resistance to recognizing and removing bias from the curriculum and instructional materials.
  • Gender, Race, and Performance Expectations of College Students
    Women often have low performance expectations for themselves but expect other women to succeed. This study finds that minority students think not only that they will do worse than other minority group members but also that their group will do poorly.
  • Girls Can Succeed in Science! Antidotes for Science Phobia in Boys and Girls
    This book provides teachers with effective strategies to help encourage all students but particularly young women who are apprehensive about science.
  • Influences on Children's Sharing in a Multicultural Setting
    Examined various potential contributors to sharing (parenting styles, context of identified versus anonymous sharing, and gender) among Caucasian and Asian second graders at an international school, also noting variables known to relate to sharing in young children (moral reasoning and empathy). Parenting styles, gender, and context all influenced children's sharing behavior, as did culture and moral reasoning.
  • Linking Diversity and Educational Purpose: How Diversity Affects the Classroom Environment and Student Development
    This study examined the impact of diversity on students' self-perceived improvement in the abilities necessary to contribute positively to a pluralistic democracy. It noted how such diversity-related campus activities as exposure to multicultural curricula and opportunities to study and interact with diverse peers affected student development.
  • Living and Learning: Experiences North and South
    An Afro-American multicultural education professor explains how struggle has accompanied her academic pursuits and lifelong experiences. She traces her sharecropper family's history, demonstrating the intergenerational effects of undemocratic class, race, and gender relations and showing how her learning experiences have shaped her beliefs as a multicultural educator dedicated to mutual teacher/student respect.
  • Multicultural Learning Environments: Influence of Culture on Science Learning
    This study deals with the cultural environments of students and how cultural and contextual factors might interact with student perceptions of their learning environment and their preferred instructional modes.
  • Multicultural Science Education
    Describes multicultural education and lists its basic premises. Explains the importance of science teachers' attitudes in learning.
  • Preparing Science Teachers for Diversity through Service Learning
    Discusses challenges teachers face with learners from different backgrounds. Presents service learning as an alternative framework for teacher education with the potential for engaging teachers in an active construction of knowledge and development of connections between community and multicultural teaching practices.
  • Race, Class, and Gender Considerations in Nursing Education
    The curriculum revolution in nursing education is a direct result of outdated modes of teaching and learning that fail to prepare students for nursing in a diverse society. Little dialog is occurring on the topic of the inclusion of multiculturalism into the curriculum.
  • Reforming Schools in a Democratic Pluralistic Society
    Issues related to race, class, and gender diversity have been silenced in most school reform efforts. To meet future national and global needs, reforms must incorporate diversity issues, promote democratic ideas, and help students acquire the knowledge, attitudes, and skills to construct civic, moral, and just communities.
  • Sex-Related HIV/AIDS Prevention among African American College Students: Issues for Preventive Counseling
    Examines condom use during oral and anal sex among 1593 African-American college undergraduates. Findings suggest a high level of concordance between men and women on several measures.
  • Teacher Candidates' Conceptions of Teaching and Learning: A Review
    The purpose of this paper is to provide a best-evidence synthesis of studies on preservice teachers' conceptions of teaching and learning and to describe their implications for teacher education.
  • Teaching Tools
    Reviews books and videos for multicultural education and cultural awareness in elementary and secondary classrooms. The 28 works reviewed focus on gender and minority experiences, U.S.
  • The Diversification of Psychology. A Multicultural Revolution
    Presents trends and recommendations arising from the continuing diversification of psychology, highlighting five multicultural themes: diversification of the United States; facilitating difficult dialogues on race, gender, and sexual orientation; spirituality as a basic dimension of the human condition; the invisibility of monoculturalism and whiteness; and teaching multiculturalism and diversity. The challenge of developing a multicultural psychology is discussed.
  • The Relationships among Counselor-Trainees' Gender, Cognitive Development, and White Racial Identity: Implications for Counselor Training
    Gender and lowest stage of cognitive development were found to significantly contribute to the variance in lower levels of white racial identity in a study of white counselor trainees (N=82). Significant relationships were not found between the higher stages of cognitive development and higher levels of white racial identity.
  • Understanding Differences in Cultural Communication Styles
    Administrators must integrate the strengths of diverse cultural styles into all parts of the system, including hiring practices, curriculum development, teaching and learning styles, discipline philosophy, and communication with parents. To reduce the potential for misunderstandings, this article explains differences in "mainstream" versus traditional ethnic communication and participation that govern student placement decisions, parent-teacher conferences, informal interactions, and treatment of "hot topics." (MLH).
  • Working with Aboriginal Women: Applying Feminist Therapy in a Multicultural Counselling Context
    Argues that counselor education for working with Aboriginal women must address both culture and gender issues, and that this may be done by applying feminist theory within a multicultural counseling perspective. Explores these perspectives, their application to these women, and specific counselor education considerations.
  • World Rhythms: Students Make Cultural Connections through Music and Dance
    Describes several programs in which music and dance are used to unlock doors that stereotypes of race, gender, language, religion, or ability have kept shut. Exposure to the music and dance of other cultures helps children's awareness of the diversity of the world and people's essential similarities.